Tag Archives: spring barley

608–620 A. Panfilova, M. Korkhova, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko, N. Nikonchuk and O. Kovalenko
Formation of photosynthetic and grain yield of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depend on varietal characteristics and plant growth regulators
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Formation of photosynthetic and grain yield of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depend on varietal characteristics and plant growth regulators

A. Panfilova*, M. Korkhova, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko, N. Nikonchuk and O. Kovalenko

Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agricultural technologies, 73 Karpenko street, UA54021 Mykolayiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: panfilovaantonina@ukr.net

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of the barley treatment crops with modern retrograde preparations on the background of the mineral fertilizers introduction into the photosynthetic activity of crops and grain yield. The experiments were carried out in 2013 -2017 on the southern black soil in the conditions of the Ukrainian Steppe. On the basis of the study results, it was determined that the introduction of irrigated fertilizer barley in a dose of N30P30 (background) under pre-sowing cultivation and the application of extra-root crop supplements at the phases beginning of the barley outflow straw into the tube and the organoleptic fermentation of Organic D2 and natural microbial complex Escort – Bio creates favorable conditions for the formation at the optimal levels of photosynthetic parameters and grain yield. Thus, on average, over the years of research and by factor variety, grain yield on these experimental variants was 3.37–3.41 t ha-1, which exceeded its level on uncontrolled control by 0.71–0.75 t ha-1 or 26.7–28.2%. Based on the study results, the use of modern regenerating agents against the background of mineral fertilizers can be recommended as an expedient and effective measure of spring barley raising the productivity.

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2134–2143 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel, E. Lauringson and L. Talgre
The advantage of Decision Support System for managing spring barley disease in Estonia
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The advantage of Decision Support System for managing spring barley disease in Estonia

P. Sooväli¹*, M. Koppel¹, E. Lauringson² and L. Talgre²

¹Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: pille.soovali@etki.ee

Abstract:

A Decision Support System (DSS) I-Taimekaitse focusing on use of timely applied and reduced fungicide rates in control of cereal diseases has been tested in field trials since 2003. We compared the conventional treatment and the DSS-based spray practices in 18 field trials in five agricultural locations over 7-year period. Efficacy of the control of net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres (Drechsler, am Drechlera teres Sacc. Shoem), the main fungal disease in spring barley has been tested to determine the economic advantage of DSS use. Compared with the conventional spray practices, the advantage I-Taimekaitse resulted in reduction of application doses by 30 to 60% of the registered rate. According to I-Taimekaitse, the fungicides were applied mainly between heading and flowering growth stages (GS 55–65), whereas traditional routine spraying is commonly made at booting (GS 37–49). The experiment clarifies the cost-benefit of using DSS-based approach in barley disease management with average yield increase above the control in 12.8% and above the conventional treatment in 14.1%. I-Taimekaitse gave competitive disease control and average yield output reduction compared with conventional practice by 9%. In general the Treatment Frequency Index applied in conventional treatment was 0.65 and in DSS 0.41. Although the cost of treatment expense in DSS was 20% less compared with conventional practice, the performance of conventional used spray practices was outstanding in economic return.

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1267–1275 E. Akk,, T.E. Søndergaard, J.L. Sørensen, H. Giese, M.L. Kütt, L. Edesi, H. Lõiveke and E. Lauringson
The effects of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on barley kernels
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The effects of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on barley kernels

E. Akk¹,*, T.E. Søndergaard², J.L. Sørensen², H. Giese², M.L. Kütt⁵, L. Edesi³, H. Lõiveke¹ and E. Lauringson⁴

¹ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Protection, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
² Aalborg University, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Fredrik BajersVej 7H, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
³ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
⁴ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi ⁵, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
5University of Vienna, Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Währinger Straβe 38, 1090, Wien, Austria
*Correspondence: elina.akk@etki.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the field experiments was to compare the effect of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in barley kernels. The experiments were performed in Central Estonia (58 ̊33´N, 25 ̊34´E) in 2009 and 2010. The composition of fungi in spring barley kernels was found through isolation and subsequent sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and morphological features. During the study, 13 species of micro-fungi were identified in the grain samples. The most common species of fungi found in barley were Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium poae, as well as Phoma pinodella. The compositions of pathogenic fungi on Estonian barley kernels were affected by the level of nitrogen fertilization and growing on barley-pea intercropping. The study showed tendencies that barley-pea intercropping had fewer occurrences of Fusarium species than sole barley.

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
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Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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721-728 G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė
Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding
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Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding

G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė

Cereal Breeding Department, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry, Instituto av. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT 58344,Lithuania; e-mail: grazinastat@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The large variation in net blotch resistance is observed among barley germplasm, but the range of European commercial cultivars of spring barley have various degree of susceptibility. This study was designed to test 150 West European ecotype spring barley varieties and breeding lines in the field for resistance to net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and to provide information for a successful resistance–breeding program in spring barley under Lithuanian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Agriculture of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The effectiveness of different methods of artificial inoculation was also tested. About 50 varieties with net blotch resistance level ranging from resistant/moderately resistant to susceptible were chosen for agro-biological trait evaluation. Increased net blotch infection had a negative impact on ear length, number of spikelets and number of grains in the ear in 2007. No significant effects on these traits were found in 2009, but increased net blotch level caused significantly lower grain weight per ear. Artificial inoculation using chopped straw of susceptible varieties is more likely to give desirable effects on infection level. The varieties ‘Luokė’, ‘Otis’, ‘Anni’, ‘Landora’, ‘Beatrix’ possessed the highest resistance to net blotch, and the varieties ‘Marnie’ and ‘Isotta’ exhibited good resistance to powdery mildew. The variety ‘Acrobat’ was resistant to both diseases.

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162-168 A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė
Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions
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Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions

A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period of 2005–2007 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture to test the efficacy of harrowing on weeds at different growth stages of ecologically grown winter wheat and spring barley. The main weeds in winter wheat were: Lamium sp., Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and in spring barley Ch.album, Sinapis arvensis, Stellaria media, T. inodorum. The weeds most vulnerable to harrowing in winter wheat were: Veronica sp., Chenopodium album and Capsella bursa pastoris. Chenopodium album and Sinapis arvensis were vulnerable to harrowing in spring barley. Early harrowing pre-emergence followed with harrowing at the 3–4 leave stage of spring barley was the most optimal.Winter wheat grain yield reduction tendencies were obtained in plots harrowed threetimes. No statistical difference in spring barley grain yield was found among the treatments. The decrease in weed number and mass depended on harrowing timing and frequency, meteorological conditions and weed species composition.

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169-174 O. Auškalnienė, A. Kadžys, A. Auškalnis and G. Pšibišauskienė
Weed emergence and survival in spring barley
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Weed emergence and survival in spring barley

O. Auškalnienė, A. Kadžys, A. Auškalnis and G. Pšibišauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture
Instituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.;
e-mail:algis@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weed emergence and survival in spring barley was investigated in field trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003–2005 and 2008.The soil of the experimental site – Endocalcary-Endohypogleyic Cambisol, loam.Conventional soil tillage moldboard ploughing in the autumn and pre-sowing soil tillage in spring – was used. Spring barley var ‘Luokė’ during 2003–2005 and ‘Aura DS’ in 2008 was sown in the second half of April, at a rate of 4.0 million seed ha-1. Weed emergence was observed in nine unsprayed plots of barley, in 4 places per plot (total 36 places), sites of 50 x 50 cm in size were marked, where all weeds present were counted weekly from sowing until the end of heading.There were found 11–20 weed species in the spring barley stands. In an extremely dryspring the weed species number was lowest. 36% of all the weeds that emerged in the spring barley growing period emerged during the first assesment performed at the second decade of May.Weed survival depends on the general weed number in the field and cropdevelopment. When weediness was quite low, later emerged weeds were not able to compete with barley and earlier-emerged weeds.

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335-340 M. Klimeková and Z. Lehocká
Comparison of yields and qualitative characters of spring barley grown after three preceding crops in an organic farming system in the years 2003–2008
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Comparison of yields and qualitative characters of spring barley grown after three preceding crops in an organic farming system in the years 2003–2008

M. Klimeková and Z. Lehocká

Research Centre for Plant Production – Research Institute of Plant Production,Bratislavská cesta 122, 921 68 Piešťany, Slovak Republic; e-mail: klimekova@vurv.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate yields and selected qualitative parameters of spring barley cultivated after three preceding crops (sugar beet, winter wheat, maize for grain) in the years 2003–2008. farm yard manure was added to the preceding crops at a dosage of 40 t ha-1. A long term stationary field experiment was established on loamy luvi-haplic chernozem in south-western Slovakia. Statistically higher yields were recorded after sugar beet (5.38 t ha-1) than either maize for grain (4.77 t ha-1) or winter wheat (3.54 t ha-1). TGW was statistically significantly higher after maize for grain (43.82 g) compared with winter wheat (42.46 g) and sugar beet (40.93 g). The highest protein content (** P  0.01) was found in the barley crop after sugar beet (12.64%), followed by winter wheat (11.02%) and maize for grain (10.56%). Kolbach’s numbers were statistically higher after winter wheat (37.30) than either sugar beet (35.88) or maize for grain (36.12). The extract and starch content was not statistically influenced by the preceding crop.

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492-497 R. Skuodienė and R. Nekrošienė
Effect of perennial grasses ploughed in as green manure on the occurence of net blotch in spring barley
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Effect of perennial grasses ploughed in as green manure on the occurence of net blotch in spring barley

R. Skuodienė¹ and R. Nekrošienė²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vėžaičiai Branch, Gargždų 29, LT–96216 Klaipėda distr.,Lithuania; tel: + 370 46 458233; e-mail: rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt
²Botanical Garden of Klaipėda University, Kretingos 92, LT–92327 Klaipėda, Lithuania;e-mail: rita_nekrosiene@mail.ru

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out in the Vėžaičiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (West Lithuania) in 2005–2007. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of using perennial legumes (red and white clover, lucerne) and timothy as green manure in crop rotation on the occurence of net blotch disease (causal agent Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoem.) in spring barley. Preceding crops of spring barley were winter triticale and winter rye (perennial grasses were preceding crops of these winter cereals). The yearly occurence of net blotch disease was high: incidence was about 70.00–100.00% severity; at the spring barley booting stage (BBCH 37-39) – from 4.45 to 12.25%, at milk maturity stage (BBCH 73-75) – 43.75–70.95%. The variously-managed perennial grasses in the crop rotation had a significant effect on the occurence of net blotch: the spring barley grown after timothy was 1.1–1.5 times less affected in 2005 and 2007, compared to the spring barley grown after red and white clovers, and about 1.2 times less affected grown after lucerne, compared with spring barley grown after other grasses in 2006.

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329-339 A. Satkus and A. Velykis
Modeling of seedbed creation for spring cereals in clayey soils
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Modeling of seedbed creation for spring cereals in clayey soils

A. Satkus and A. Velykis

Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Joniškėlis, LT-39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

A model field experiment to establish the optimal parameters of seedbed structure for spring cereals was conducted at the Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 2002–2004 on clay loam Gleyic Cambisol.We evaluated seedbed models for spring barley in small plots, where on the top seedbedsublayer (from 0 to 1.5 cm) the portion of desirable large-scale (>5 mm), on the middle sublayer (from 1.5 to 3.0 cm) of medium sized (2–5 mm) and on the bottom sublayer (from 3.0 to 4.5 cm) of smallest (<2 mm) soil structural aggregates made up to 40% in the 1st, 60% in the 2nd, 80% in the 3rd and 100% in the 4th model. Spring barley germination dynamics, emergence and growing intensity on clay loam soil were dependent on the structure of the seedbed and on the moisture content in the topsoil. When the topsoil moisture under the seedbed had decreased to 17.5 and 18.0% the spring barley seeds were germinating more intensively; more seed germinated in the seedbed where desirable soil structural aggregates account for 100 and 80% respectively in all seedbed sublayers, i.e. in the more fractionated seedbed, where bigger soil structural aggregates were taken to the surface, and smaller ones were concentrated deeper, closer to the seeds. When the moisture content in the topsoil was the highest (20.5%), the seedbed structure did not condition a consequent improvement in seed emergence. With increasing the seedbed fractionating, there was increasingly more moisture and higher porosity, less crust forming on the soil surface after rain, and less germination of annual weeds in the spring barley crop.

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