Tag Archives: spring barley

xxx V. Šķipars, D. Ruņģis, I. Ločmele, S. Seile, I. Mežaka and L. Legzdiņa
Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems
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Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems

V. Šķipars¹²*, D. Ruņģis², I. Ločmele¹, S. Seile¹, I. Mežaka¹ and L. Legzdiņa¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, 2 Zinatnes Str., LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Genetic Resources Centre, 111 Rigas Str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilnis.skipars@silava.lv

Abstract:

Most crop varieties currently grown in organic conditions have been bred for conventional farming, and are not adapted to increased environmental variability under organic farming conditions and unpredictable environmental fluctuations due to climate change. This can be mitigated by the use of heterogeneous material, increasing genetic diversity and enabling adaptation to local conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of several generations of cultivation in parallel under organic and conventional farming systems on the genetic diversity, morphological traits and frequency of major disease resistance genes as indicators of adaptation to the farming system in heterogeneous spring barley populations with differing levels of diversity. Populations in differing generations originating from crosses between two, three, 10 and 15 parental genotypes were cultivated in organic and conventional farming systems for three, four or 10 generations, thus forming subpopulations in each environment. These subpopulations were genotyped, and tested for morphological traits in both farming systems. A significant effect of cultivation environment on tillering capacity (p < 0.05) was found for all tested populations and in several cases for plant height, ear length and grain number per spike, indicating some adaptation trends. In the short term, genetic diversity parameters were not decreased in the later generation populations in comparison to the initial populations with the exception of observed heterozygosity, as expected for a self-pollinating species. No clear differences in genetic diversity parameters between populations cultivated under either organic or conventional condition for several generations were identified.

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595–600 O. Shchuklina, R. Afanasiev, I. Voronchikhina, I. Klimenkova and A. Komkova
Differentiated application of nitrogen fertilizers based on optical sensor readings
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Differentiated application of nitrogen fertilizers based on optical sensor readings

O. Shchuklina¹*, R. Afanasiev², I. Voronchikhina¹, I. Klimenkova¹ and A. Komkova¹

¹Federal State Budgetary Institution of Sciences Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Distant hybridization, Botanic street 4, RU127276 Moscow, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry named after D.N Pryanishnikov, Pryanishnikova street 31A, RU127434, Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: oashuklina@gmail.com

Abstract:

The article considers the method of variable rate application of top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers in spring barley crops in the system of precise agriculture. The principle of is based on the in-process diagnosis of plants state in key phases of development and the introduction of necessary dose of top dressing in specific field areas. To assess the plants state, a GreenSeeker optical sensor, which measures the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The tailored application of top dressing increases the yield of spring barley grain by 14.2% compared to the application of fertilizers with one calculated rate for the entire plot or field (Skudra, 2017, Hamann, 2020).

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1388–1403 A. Panfilova,, A. Mohylnytska, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko and S. Tyshchenko
Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)
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Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)

A. Panfilova¹,*, A. Mohylnytska², V. Gamayunova¹, M. Fedorchuk¹, A. Drobitko¹ and S. Tyshchenko²

¹Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agricultural technologies,
73 Karpenko Str., UA54000 Mykolayiv, Ukraine
²Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Management, 9 George Gongadze Str., UA54020 Mykolayiv, Ukraine

Abstract:

Crop yield is a result of the interaction between plant genetic traits, soil properties, agrotechnology and climatic regimes. Low yield tend to be formed in regions where it is limited to the extent of water availability, heat stress and the short duration of the grain filling period. High temperature and drought stress are projected to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. The article presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of treatment of spring barley crops with modern growth-regulating drugs on the background of mineral fertilizers, carried out in different weather and climatic conditions in 2013–2017 yrs on the Southern chernozem in the conditions of Steppe of Ukraine. It was studied the influence of weather and climatic conditions, varietal characteristics of spring barley and nutrition variants on the formation of grain yield. It was determined that the cultivation of spring barley, the introduction of pre-sowing cultivation of mineral fertilizer at a dose of N30P30 (background) and the use of crop foliar fertilizing at the beginning of the phase of stooling and earing by the complex organo-mineral fertilizer Escort bio created favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants of the studied varieties, which in turn had a positive effect on grain yield. Thus, according to this variant of nutrition, on average, during the years of research, it was formed the yield of 3.25–3.61 t ha-1 grains depending on the studied variety.
Results of researches showed that weather conditions during the years of research significantly influenced on the productivity of spring barley varieties. In 2016 the amount of precipitation was the highest (174.0 mm), the temperature during vegetation of spring barley was +14.9 °C. In 2013 the amount of precipitation was the lowest (67.4 mm), the temperature was +18.5 °C. The lowest crop yield was formed in 2013, and the highest yield was formed in 2016. Studies showed that the influence of weather factors in various interfacial periods of growth and development of spring barley was significant enough for the manifestation of signs of yield and its elements and is more dependent on rainfall.

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608–620 A. Panfilova, M. Korkhova, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko, N. Nikonchuk and O. Kovalenko
Formation of photosynthetic and grain yield of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depend on varietal characteristics and plant growth regulators
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Formation of photosynthetic and grain yield of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depend on varietal characteristics and plant growth regulators

A. Panfilova*, M. Korkhova, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko, N. Nikonchuk and O. Kovalenko

Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agricultural technologies, 73 Karpenko street, UA54021 Mykolayiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: panfilovaantonina@ukr.net

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of the barley treatment crops with modern retrograde preparations on the background of the mineral fertilizers introduction into the photosynthetic activity of crops and grain yield. The experiments were carried out in 2013 -2017 on the southern black soil in the conditions of the Ukrainian Steppe. On the basis of the study results, it was determined that the introduction of irrigated fertilizer barley in a dose of N30P30 (background) under pre-sowing cultivation and the application of extra-root crop supplements at the phases beginning of the barley outflow straw into the tube and the organoleptic fermentation of Organic D2 and natural microbial complex Escort – Bio creates favorable conditions for the formation at the optimal levels of photosynthetic parameters and grain yield. Thus, on average, over the years of research and by factor variety, grain yield on these experimental variants was 3.37–3.41 t ha-1, which exceeded its level on uncontrolled control by 0.71–0.75 t ha-1 or 26.7–28.2%. Based on the study results, the use of modern regenerating agents against the background of mineral fertilizers can be recommended as an expedient and effective measure of spring barley raising the productivity.

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2134–2143 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel, E. Lauringson and L. Talgre
The advantage of Decision Support System for managing spring barley disease in Estonia
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The advantage of Decision Support System for managing spring barley disease in Estonia

P. Sooväli¹*, M. Koppel¹, E. Lauringson² and L. Talgre²

¹Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: pille.soovali@etki.ee

Abstract:

A Decision Support System (DSS) I-Taimekaitse focusing on use of timely applied and reduced fungicide rates in control of cereal diseases has been tested in field trials since 2003. We compared the conventional treatment and the DSS-based spray practices in 18 field trials in five agricultural locations over 7-year period. Efficacy of the control of net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres (Drechsler, am Drechlera teres Sacc. Shoem), the main fungal disease in spring barley has been tested to determine the economic advantage of DSS use. Compared with the conventional spray practices, the advantage I-Taimekaitse resulted in reduction of application doses by 30 to 60% of the registered rate. According to I-Taimekaitse, the fungicides were applied mainly between heading and flowering growth stages (GS 55–65), whereas traditional routine spraying is commonly made at booting (GS 37–49). The experiment clarifies the cost-benefit of using DSS-based approach in barley disease management with average yield increase above the control in 12.8% and above the conventional treatment in 14.1%. I-Taimekaitse gave competitive disease control and average yield output reduction compared with conventional practice by 9%. In general the Treatment Frequency Index applied in conventional treatment was 0.65 and in DSS 0.41. Although the cost of treatment expense in DSS was 20% less compared with conventional practice, the performance of conventional used spray practices was outstanding in economic return.

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1267–1275 E. Akk,, T.E. Søndergaard, J.L. Sørensen, H. Giese, M.L. Kütt, L. Edesi, H. Lõiveke and E. Lauringson
The effects of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on barley kernels
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The effects of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on barley kernels

E. Akk¹,*, T.E. Søndergaard², J.L. Sørensen², H. Giese², M.L. Kütt⁵, L. Edesi³, H. Lõiveke¹ and E. Lauringson⁴

¹ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Protection, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
² Aalborg University, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Fredrik BajersVej 7H, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
³ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
⁴ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi ⁵, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
5University of Vienna, Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Währinger Straβe 38, 1090, Wien, Austria
*Correspondence: elina.akk@etki.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the field experiments was to compare the effect of nitrogen rates and intercropping on the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in barley kernels. The experiments were performed in Central Estonia (58 ̊33´N, 25 ̊34´E) in 2009 and 2010. The composition of fungi in spring barley kernels was found through isolation and subsequent sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and morphological features. During the study, 13 species of micro-fungi were identified in the grain samples. The most common species of fungi found in barley were Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium poae, as well as Phoma pinodella. The compositions of pathogenic fungi on Estonian barley kernels were affected by the level of nitrogen fertilization and growing on barley-pea intercropping. The study showed tendencies that barley-pea intercropping had fewer occurrences of Fusarium species than sole barley.

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
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Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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721-728 G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė
Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding
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Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding

G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė

Cereal Breeding Department, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry, Instituto av. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT 58344,Lithuania; e-mail: grazinastat@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The large variation in net blotch resistance is observed among barley germplasm, but the range of European commercial cultivars of spring barley have various degree of susceptibility. This study was designed to test 150 West European ecotype spring barley varieties and breeding lines in the field for resistance to net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and to provide information for a successful resistance–breeding program in spring barley under Lithuanian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Agriculture of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The effectiveness of different methods of artificial inoculation was also tested. About 50 varieties with net blotch resistance level ranging from resistant/moderately resistant to susceptible were chosen for agro-biological trait evaluation. Increased net blotch infection had a negative impact on ear length, number of spikelets and number of grains in the ear in 2007. No significant effects on these traits were found in 2009, but increased net blotch level caused significantly lower grain weight per ear. Artificial inoculation using chopped straw of susceptible varieties is more likely to give desirable effects on infection level. The varieties ‘Luokė’, ‘Otis’, ‘Anni’, ‘Landora’, ‘Beatrix’ possessed the highest resistance to net blotch, and the varieties ‘Marnie’ and ‘Isotta’ exhibited good resistance to powdery mildew. The variety ‘Acrobat’ was resistant to both diseases.

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162-168 A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė
Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions
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Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions

A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period of 2005–2007 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture to test the efficacy of harrowing on weeds at different growth stages of ecologically grown winter wheat and spring barley. The main weeds in winter wheat were: Lamium sp., Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and in spring barley Ch.album, Sinapis arvensis, Stellaria media, T. inodorum. The weeds most vulnerable to harrowing in winter wheat were: Veronica sp., Chenopodium album and Capsella bursa pastoris. Chenopodium album and Sinapis arvensis were vulnerable to harrowing in spring barley. Early harrowing pre-emergence followed with harrowing at the 3–4 leave stage of spring barley was the most optimal.Winter wheat grain yield reduction tendencies were obtained in plots harrowed threetimes. No statistical difference in spring barley grain yield was found among the treatments. The decrease in weed number and mass depended on harrowing timing and frequency, meteorological conditions and weed species composition.

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169-174 O. Auškalnienė, A. Kadžys, A. Auškalnis and G. Pšibišauskienė
Weed emergence and survival in spring barley
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Weed emergence and survival in spring barley

O. Auškalnienė, A. Kadžys, A. Auškalnis and G. Pšibišauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture
Instituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.;
e-mail:algis@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weed emergence and survival in spring barley was investigated in field trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003–2005 and 2008.The soil of the experimental site – Endocalcary-Endohypogleyic Cambisol, loam.Conventional soil tillage moldboard ploughing in the autumn and pre-sowing soil tillage in spring – was used. Spring barley var ‘Luokė’ during 2003–2005 and ‘Aura DS’ in 2008 was sown in the second half of April, at a rate of 4.0 million seed ha-1. Weed emergence was observed in nine unsprayed plots of barley, in 4 places per plot (total 36 places), sites of 50 x 50 cm in size were marked, where all weeds present were counted weekly from sowing until the end of heading.There were found 11–20 weed species in the spring barley stands. In an extremely dryspring the weed species number was lowest. 36% of all the weeds that emerged in the spring barley growing period emerged during the first assesment performed at the second decade of May.Weed survival depends on the general weed number in the field and cropdevelopment. When weediness was quite low, later emerged weeds were not able to compete with barley and earlier-emerged weeds.

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