Tag Archives: stability

xxx V. Bulgakov, J. Olt, V. Nadykto, V. Volskiy, S. Polishchuk, A. Aboltins and H. Beloev
Theoretical research into directional stability of trailed tandem- type disk harrow
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Theoretical research into directional stability of trailed tandem- type disk harrow

V. Bulgakov¹, J. Olt², V. Nadykto³, V. Volskiy⁴, S. Polishchuk⁵, A. Aboltins⁶ and H. Beloev⁷

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv Str., Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA 08162, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁶Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Cakstes Blvd. 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁷University of Ruse “Angel Kanchev”, 5, Studentska Str., BG 7017, Ruse, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Disking is one of the methods of soil cultivation, provides its effective crumbling, loosening, partial mixing and soil inversion. This ensures that crop residues on the soil surface are shredded and intermixing with loosened soil particles. Since, in addition to crop stubble, weeds are also counted as crop residues, soil disking, along with the use of herbicides, is often regarded as the most effective method of controlling the weediness of the agricultural background. Despite the fact that numerous studies on the disk harrow working process are available, insufficient attention has been paid to the study of the stability of harrowmachine-tractor units, especially trailed ones. The purpose of this study is to establish the theoretical patterns that would provide for selecting the trailed disk harrow parameters that ensure the desired directional stability of the implement, which, in its turn, helps to achieve the desired qualitative performance of the disk harrowing machine-tractor unit. The principles of the theory agricultural machine, analytical mechanics, higher mathematics, as well as methods of PC-assisted numerical calculations have been used. According to the results of the study, it has been established that sufficient directional stability of the trailed disk harrow can be ensured if its working width B, the distance from the hitch point to the centre of resistance (parameter d) and the operating speed 𝑉𝑜 are properly selected. Determining the above-mentioned parameters of the disk harrow with the use of the obtained new analytical relations ensures achieving just their optimal combination, which provides for the maximum field productivity of the harrowmachine-tractor unit with the satisfactory stability of disk harrow movement in the horizontal plane.

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540–551 M. Lozinskiy, L. Burdenyuk-Tarasevych, M. Grabovskyi, T. Lozinska, V. Sabadyn, I. Sidorova, T. Panchenko, Y. Fedoruk and Y. Kumanska
Evaluation of selected soft winter wheat lines for main ear grain weight
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Evaluation of selected soft winter wheat lines for main ear grain weight

M. Lozinskiy¹, L. Burdenyuk-Tarasevych¹, M. Grabovskyi²*, T. Lozinska³, V. Sabadyn¹, I. Sidorova¹, T. Panchenko², Y. Fedoruk² and Y. Kumanska¹

¹Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Genetics, Breeding and Seed production, Sq. Soborna 8/1, UA09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
²Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Technologies in Plant Growing and Plant Protection, Sq. Soborna 8/1, UA09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
³Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Forestry, Botany and Plant Physiology, Sq. Soborna 8/1, UA09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nikgr1977@gmail.com

Abstract:

Studies to assess the breeding samples of soft winter wheat by weight of grain from the main ear and determine the indicators of adaptability were conducted at the Bila Tserkva Research and Selection Station (BTRSS) in 2011–2013. The study revealed significant differences in breeding lines in the range of variability of grain mass from the main ear and identified small, medium and significant coefficients of variation, which indicates their excellent response to environmental conditions. It was due to genotype, year conditions and their interaction. Line 42 KS had significantly higher than the standard grain weight of the main ear (0.14 g) and the lowest value of the coefficient of variation (8.7%). According to the indicators of adaptability (GAC, σ²(GxE)gi, σ²SACi, σSACi, etc.) the lines 42 KS, 24 KS and 44 KS were distinguished. There was a significant correlation between the weight of grain from the ear and the weight of 1,000 grains (0.603–0.674) and the direct influence of the weight of grain from the main ear on the weight of grain from the plant and grain yield (0.805–0.942). Selected lines as a result of research (2015–2020) from these populations of soft winter wheat are competitively tested in the conditions of Bila Tserkva Research and Selection Station, forming high grain yields (7.39–8.12 t ha-1) and will be transferred to 2021 for the State variety test for inclusion in the Register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine.

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868–876 C. Nuortila, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, H. Suopanki, K. Sirviö and S. Niemi
Effects of storage on the properties of rapeseed oil and alcohol blends
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Effects of storage on the properties of rapeseed oil and alcohol blends

C. Nuortila*, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, H. Suopanki, K. Sirviö and S. Niemi

University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, P.O. Box 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: carolin.nuortila@univaasa.fi

Abstract:

Kinematic viscosity and density are important fuel properties because they influence fuel atomisation during injection into the engine cylinder. The viscosity and density of neat vegetable oils usually are too high to allow optimal use of these oils in compression ignition engines. Blending vegetable oils with alcohols can improve these properties, but it is not known whether the blend properties remain stable during storage. This study measured kinematic viscosity (at 40 °C), density (at 15 °C) and surface tension of rapeseed oil-alcohol blends that had been stored in closed borosilicate glass bottles at room temperature in the dark for 49 weeks. The values were compared with those of the fresh blends. Further measurements of oxidation stability for the rapeseed oil and the blends were taken after 72 weeks of storage. The blends consisted of rapeseed oil with ethanol at 5 vol–%, and rapeseed oil with 1–butanol at 5 vol–%, 10 vol–%, 20 vol–% and 30 vol–%. All in all, the observed changes during storage were small. Density values deviated by less than 1%, surface tension by no more than 3% and kinematic viscosity differed from the fresh blends’ values by 1% to 8%. Surface tension had increased in some blends and decreased in others. Kinematic viscosity rose in all blends, with the smallest increase measured for the rapeseed oil–butanol 30 vol–% blend. This blend also showed the best oxidation stability, which was close to six hours.

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1124–1135 L. Prysiazhniuk, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk
The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions
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The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions

L. Prysiazhniuk*, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk

Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Henerala Rodimtseva 15, RU 0341 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: prysiazhniuk_l@ukr.net

Abstract:

The study of phenotypic plasticity and stability, according to which the potential of new spring canola varieties adaptability for agroecological technology of spring canola growing in the strategy of intensification of plant production is actual. The new canola varieties, which were included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine was studied. Field studies were carried out in 2018–2019 on the testing sites of the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination in Forest and Forest Steppe zones of Ukraine. The phenotypic plasticity and stability analysis for yield, 1,000 seeds weight, protein and oil content were carried out according to the Eberhart and Russell approach. As results of this study, it was determined that for yield Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. CEBRA CL and Lavina varieties are characterized stability of 1,000 seeds weight during studied years. According to the Wricke’s ecovalence deviation and standard deviation Lavina, Lakritz and CEBRA CL varieties consider as intensive type varieties for yield; for 1,000 seeds weight – Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties. According to standard deviation for protein and oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as highly adapted. Cleopatra, Lavina and Lakritz are stable for protein content. For oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. For protein content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are intensive. Thus, spring canola varieties, which are intensive for studied characteristics, respond positively to an improvement of growing conditions.

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612–628 G. Tobi, Y.E. Bahloul, S. Oumouss, I. Rahmouni, A. Birouk and O. Benlhabib
Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm
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Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm

G. Tobi¹²*, Y.E. Bahloul¹, S. Oumouss¹, I. Rahmouni¹, A. Birouk² and O. Benlhabib²

¹Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Rabat, Research Unit of Plant Improvement Conservation and Development of Phytogenetic Resources, Avenue Mohamed Belarbi Alaoui B.P: 6356 – Instituts, 10101 – Rabat, Morocco
²Research Unit of Applied Biotechnologies in Agriculture, Agrobiodiversity and Local Products, Department of Plant Protection Production and Biotechnology, Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Avenue Allal EL FASSI – Madinat Al Irfane – BP 6202 – 10101 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: g.tobi@iav.ac.ma

Abstract:

Progeny testing is the second part of maternal recurrent selection scheme adopted by INRA-Morocco for the national sugar beet breeding programme. The objective of this study is sugar beet germplasm productivity, heritability and stability analysis. The studied material concern 18 half-sib families (HSF) preselected initially for their seed production potential. Trials were conducted using randomised complete blocks designs during, 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2017/18 campaigns in two experimental fields of INRA-Morocco; Sidi Allal Tazi (34° 30′ N, 6° 19′ W) and Larache (35° 11’ N, 6° 09’ W). Evaluated parameters concern the vigour, root weight (RW), leaf biomass yield (LBY), and sugar content (Sc). Data analysis by comparative procedures explores different accordance degrees of HSF versus controls. Good vegetative growth was observed, 85.6% closer to the maximal indicated scale level. The RW was significantly influenced by the genotype and reached a maximum of 1.06 kg versus 1.08 kg average recorded by controls. Sugar content recorded mean was 20.97% in HSF versus 21.39% in the controls. Most of HSF revealed mean values close to Z-type variety. Estimated heritability was 0.5 for RW, 0.2 for the LBY, and 0.02 for Sc. Sugar content was influenced by the environment and explained by the AMMI model (73.6%) versus 53.9% and 44.4% for root weight and leaf biomass yield respectively. The AMMI stability values showed F11, F12, F16, and F17 families as the most performing and stable HSF. Results demonstrate the relevance of the maternal recurrent selection scheme of the on-going national breeding programme.

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224-231 E.P. Shanina and G.A. Likhodeyevsky
Evaluation of interspecific potato breeding material with a complex of genes of immunity to Potato virus Y using molecular markers
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Evaluation of interspecific potato breeding material with a complex of genes of immunity to Potato virus Y using molecular markers

E.P. Shanina* and G.A. Likhodeyevsky

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Ural Federal Agrarian Research Center Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», 112A Belinskogo Str., RU620142 Yekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: shanina08@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The article presents the results of research on potato culture, the presence of Ryadg, Rysto, and Rychc genes in complex interspecific potato hybrids, and based on the use of the DNA markers for selection of resistant forms to Potato virus Y (PVY). These genes are derived from different genetic sources of the species Solanum andigenum, S. stoloniferum and S. chacoense, respectively. The selected potato forms with a complex of agronomic characters are recommended for inclusion in the selection process, for creation of new varieties, as well as as a valuable source material for interspecific hybridization.

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2627-2638 O.V. Tryhub, А.V. Bahan, S.M. Shakaliy, Yu.M. Barat and S.О. Yurchenko
Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
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Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity

O.V. Tryhub¹, А.V. Bahan², S.M. Shakaliy³*, Yu.M. Barat² and S.О. Yurchenko²

¹Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd.a. V.Ya. Yuryev of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Ustymivka village, Hlobynskyi district, UA36003 Poltava region, Ukraine
²Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Science and Genetics, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Plant Production, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
*Correspondence: shakaliysveta@gmail.com

Abstract:

To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.

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1232–1241 K. Sirviö, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen
Effects of sulphur on the storage stability of the bio and fossil fuel blends
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Effects of sulphur on the storage stability of the bio and fossil fuel blends

K. Sirviö*, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

Abstract:

In this study, the aim was to find out if mixing two common fuels together could be beneficial for both the environment and storage stability of fuel. It is obvious, that adding biodiesel to fossil fuel will decrease its sulphur content and reduce its carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon, sulphur dioxide and soot emissions. But will the high sulphur content enhance the storage stability of the biodiesel? Four B20 samples were produced, consisting of 20 vol% biodiesel and 80 vol% fossil diesel. The samples were prepared from rapeseed methyl ester (RME), low sulphuric fossil diesel fuel and high sulphuric diesel solvent. The blends had different sulphur contents of 6, 76, 149 and 226 mg kg-1. For these B20 fuel samples, the parameters were compared that correlate with the storage stability of the fuel blends. The studied parameters were the oxidation stability (OSI, according to EN 15751:2015), acid number (AN, according to EN 14104:2003) and kinematic viscosity (KV, by Stabinger SVM 3000 rotational viscometer). The measurements were carried out straight after mixing the blends, and again after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. According to the results, the fuel containing less sulphur slightly lost its oxidation stability within three months. Instead, the oxidation stability of high sulphuric samples improved within the same time frame. As a conclusion, the study gave a reason to assume that – in spite of its known drawbacks – the sulphur may be favourable to fuel blends’ storage stability but the phenomenon and chemistry should be studied in more detail.

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1002-1009 T. Michlová,, H. Dragounová and A. Hejtmánková
Stability of vitamin A and E in powdered cow’s milk in relation to different storage methods
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Stability of vitamin A and E in powdered cow’s milk in relation to different storage methods

T. Michlová¹,*, H. Dragounová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic 2Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, 160 00, Prague, Czech Republic *Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

In this article, the influence of different ways of storage on the content of vitamin A and E in powdered cow´s milk was studied. The cow´s whole milk powder was taken directly from the manufacturer and stored for one year in 4 different ways – in the light at room temperature, in the dark at room temperature, in a refrigerator at 8°C and in a freezer at -20°C. The content of vitamins was measured 4 times during the first month and then once a month. The samples were stored for one year. Vitamins A and E were determined by HPLC using DAD and FLD detectors. Vitamin A was identified in all samples but only α-tocopherol (out of various forms of vitamin E) was detected in all samples. In all cases steeper decline of both vitamins in first 14 days of storage was identified. The highest losses of vitamin A and E in powdered milk occurred during storage in the light at room temperature. The value decreased by 91 resp. 95% of the original value.

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637-644 R. Koppel, A. Ingver
Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat
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Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat

R. Koppel, A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1. J. Aamisepa St., Jõgeva alevik, 48306; e-mail:
Reine.Koppel@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Baking quality of 11 winter wheat varieties was studied at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute during 5 years (2005–2009). Protein content, farinograph absorption, dough stability time and loaf volume were examined in this study. The varieties were divided into clusters according to the average value of quality characteristics and coefficient of variation. Ada, Tarso, Portal, Ramiro had high protein content. Bjorke, Portal, Tarso belonged to the cluster with the highest farinograph absorption. Ada had the highest value of dough stability every year. Ada, Ebi, Compliment, Gunbo, Ramiro, Širvinta 1 and Tarso had higher loaf volume. For all the wheat quality parameters the variety effect was statistically significant but had very small magnitude compared to year effect. For the milling and baking industry, it is desirable that quality traits should be maintained as stable as possible through all environments. Varieties that had lower Cultivar Superiority value usually had higher coefficient of variation. Protein content is commonly used as predictor of baking quality. The correlation existed between protein content and farinograph absorption. Farinograph absorption correlated also with dough stability. Loaf volume had correlation with protein content only in one year out of five.

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