Tag Archives: storage

xxx O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, H. Podpriatov, O. Komar, B. Mazur and J. Olt
Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage
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Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, H. Podpriatov¹, O. Komar¹, B. Mazur¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the paper, the results are presented obtained in the research into the fresh bulbs and the dried products of 9 onion varieties cultivated in the conditions of the Ukrainian Forest Steppe area with regard to their economical biology, biochemical, marketability and organoleptic indices. The varieties that are most suitable for convection drying and long-term storage have been identified. It has been established that the marketability of both the fresh bulbs and dried products depends on the masses of the bulbs. The Bronze d’Amposta and Harmony varieties deliver the greatest amount of marketable output (94.0 and 93.2%) featuring marketable bulbs with masses of 67.4 g and 70.4 g, respectively (r = 0.82). As the bulb mass increases, the amount of non-standard (r = 0.81) and small (r = 0.76) particles in the dried product decreases substantially. It has been found that the content of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs has effect on the yield and quality of the dried and reconstituted products. The Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties, the bulbs of which during the vegetation season build up 12.9% and 13.8% of solid matter, respectively, are distinguished by the highest dry product yield – 17.1 and 16.8%, respectively. Correlation has been established between the contents of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs (r = + 0.58). During the tasting of reconstituted onion products, the highest scores were awarded to the samples produced from the Skvirskaya and Harmony varieties – 7.0 points each on the 9-point scale, as their bulbs had accumulated over 7.0% of sugars (total). Judging by the aggregate of the researched indices, the Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties of onions are the most suitable for convection drying. It has been established that the preservation of onions in the conditions of stationary buried storage without artificial cooling depends on the duration of storage and the specific varietal features. Within the five months of the test storage, the preservation of bulbs of all the varieties was high and varied within the range of 80–93%. Longer storage is expedient only in case of the Harmony, Skvirskaya and Gospodinya, for which the bulb preservation rates for a seven month storage period has been shown to be equal to 90.2, 88.4 and 87.2%, respectively. It has been proved that the quantity of healthy bulbs depends to a significant extent on the solid matter content in the bulbs (r = 0.93).

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2727–2742 N. Krasova,, L. Ikase and D. Dēķena
Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia
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Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia

N. Krasova¹,*, L. Ikase² and D. Dēķena²

¹All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding, VNIISPK, Zhilina, Orel district, RU302530 Orel oblast, Russia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Apple selections of Latvian breeding were evaluated in the Central zone of Russia since 1980, in total 32 cultivars and hybrids. After long-term evaluation, the following can be recommended for use in breeding of scab resistant cultivars with high quality fruits – ‘Dace’ (gene Rvi6), ‘Arona’, and good storage – ‘Edite’ (Rvi6), ‘Forele’, ‘Olga’, ‘Маdоna’, for breeding of early cultivars – ‘Roberts’ and DI-93-4-8, both resistant to scab (gene Rvi6) and fruit rots. Cultivars and hybrids with the best cold resistance of vital tissues were selected by artificially modelling winter-hardiness components − early colds (1st component) and mid-winter colds up to -38 °C (2nd component), showing reversible damages not exceeding 2.0 points: ‘Daina’, ‘Ella’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Gita’, ‘Saiva’, of which the last 3 maintained high hardiness of bark, cambium and xylem with slight increase of bud damages also at -40 °C. Cultivars ‘Daina’ and ‘Ella’ showed resistance of buds and vital tissues on the level of ‘Antonovka’ after modelling a thaw with following freezing to -25 °С (3rd component), which suggests tolerance to fluctuating winter temperatures. These cultivars demonstrated good adaptation to different environment conditions and may be considered in breeding of new adaptive apple cultivars with high fruit quality.

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2701–2714 L. Ikase and E. Rubauskis
Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia
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Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia

L. Ikase* and E. Rubauskis

Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Estonian apples have always been popular in Latvia. At present, ‘Tiina’ is widely grown commercially as well as in home gardens, and ‘Liivika’ is promising for organic and home orchards. A number of new Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids have been screened in 1990–2020. Several new selections by breeder Kalju Kask (Polli) are included in field trials at Institute of Horticulture – ‘Aule’, ‘Kastar’ and KK 201-2 (‘Karlote’) since 2011, ‘Kersti’ since 2014, KK 5-16 (‘Kelin’) with scab resistance gene Rvi6 and KK 2812 since 2015. Their trees were planted on dwarfing rootstock B.9 as one-year-old whips at distances 1.5×4 m, in 3 to 5 replications with 2 or 1 trees. Commercial cultivars ‘Auksis’, ‘Antei’ and ‘Zarya Alatau’ were used as controls. The highest productivity had ‘Aule’ and ‘Kastar’, the best fruit quality – ‘Aule’ and ‘Kelin’. ‘Aule’ has been highly esteemed also by some Latvian farmers. Fruits of ‘Kelin’ had the best storage, which is crucial for a cultivar’s commercial success in Latvia. On the other side, ‘Kersti’ proved to be unsuitable for Latvian conditions, having very strong tree vigour and low yields. ‘Kastar’ showed a high tendency to fruit cracking at calyx, while KK 201-2 and KK 2812 had irregular or low yields. Of newer acquisitions, scab resistant (gene Rvi6) ‘Virve’ and KK 4-11 show good preliminary results and have been propagated for trials on dwarfing rootstocks. Productivity, tree characteristics, fruit quality traits and taste panel evaluation of Estonian apples in Latvia are discussed.

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2271-2284 O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, G. Podpryatov and J. Olt
Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids
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Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, G. Podpryatov¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv,Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results acquired from the study of eight carrot hybrids which are suitable for growing in the climatic zone of woodland steppes, while considering a set of economical and/or biological, biochemical, and organoleptic properties. The carrot hybrids that were studied have a wide range of variation in their economic value indicators, which makes it possible to grow them for storage and processing in various soils and climate conditions without irrigation. The most productive carrot hybrids are White Sabine F1 and Yellowstone F1 with a commercial yield of 55.8–58.7 t hа–1 and an average taproot weight of 118.7–136.2 g. The levels of preservation of the taproot of the hybrids White Sabine F1 and Purple Haze F1 after seven months of storage in conditions that involved the use of a stationary pit storage facility was at 81.4% and 80.2% respectively. The use of the taproots of the hybrids Yellowstone F1 and Viking F1 for drying ensures a yield of a high-quality, biologically-valuable finished product with a yield of 11.4–11.7%. Dry hybrid Evolyutsiya F1 and Mars F1 carrots contain more than 40 mg (100 g)–1 of β-carotene.

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1401–1413 L. Nilova, S. Malyutenkova and I. Kruchina-Bogdanov
The impact of plant powders on acrylamide content in bakery products
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The impact of plant powders on acrylamide content in bakery products

L. Nilova¹*, S. Malyutenkova¹ and I. Kruchina-Bogdanov²

¹Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, Economics and Trade, Graduate School of Service and Trade, Novorossiyskaya street 50, RU194021 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²AMT, Ltd, Novorossiyskaya street 50, RU194021 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: nilova_l_p@mai.ru

Abstract:

This work is devoted to studying acrylamide (ACR) formation and the changes in its levels display during the storage in bakery products (BP) made of wheat flour enriched with plant powders (in the optimal amounts established earlier): blueberry – 3%; pine nut – 6%; rowan – 5%; sea buckthorn – 5%. BP were baked at two temperatures – 220 and 200 °C. ACR level was determined with the use of ‘Kapel 105 M’ capillary electrophoresis system in various BP parts (crust, sub-crust layer, crumb) 3 and 24 hours after baking. ACR formation differed in different BP layers. All plant powders slowed down its formation in the crust and the sub-crust layer. The process was influenced by formation of heterocyclic compounds (lactams) as a result of the Maillard reaction. In the crumb, ACR formation depended on the type of the used plant powder. In BP cooked with blueberry and rowan powders, the ACR level decreased, while in BP cooked with sea buckthorn and pine nut powders, it increased in comparison with other layers. Lowering the baking temperature helped to decrease acrylamide formation by 15–20% in the crumb and by 25–35% in the crust. After storing BP for 24 hours, a decrease in the ACR level was found, mainly in the crust and crumb. The intake of ACR in the human body of 70 kg when used with 100 g of BP enriched with plant powders will come to 0.16–0.2 μg. Lowering the baking temperature will decrease ACR level by 3–6%.

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1405-1416 Z. Kruma, R. Galoburda, L. Tomsone, I. Gramatina, S. Senhofa, E. Straumite, D. Klava, T. Kince, I. Cinkmanis, J. Zagorska and D. Kunkulberga
Changes in the nutritional value of breakfast cereals containing germinated spring grain flakes during storage
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Changes in the nutritional value of breakfast cereals containing germinated spring grain flakes during storage

Z. Kruma*, R. Galoburda, L. Tomsone, I. Gramatina, S. Senhofa, E. Straumite, D. Klava, T. Kince, I. Cinkmanis, J. Zagorska and D. Kunkulberga

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Rigas iela 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: zanda.kruma@llu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of current research was to assess the nutritional value of breakfast cereals containing germinated spring grain flakes and its changes after 6 month storage. Three types of breakfast cereals were prepared and packaged in two types of Standup pouches – Pap50g/Alu7/Pe60 (AL), Pap40g/PELD20/PE40 (PE). For the accelerated shelf life test the samples were stored at 35 ± 2 °C and dietary fibre, protein, fat, B-group vitamins, sugars, total phenol content and DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity were determined. Developed breakfast cereals have high nutritional value and all are high in fibre and thiamine. Additionally, sample S2 is source of protein, riboflavin, niacin, and S3 – is source of riboflavin and high in niacin. Comparing total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of tested samples S3 showed the highest values. Storage and selected packaging influenced stability of nutrients, and for S1 and S2 AL showed better results whereas for S3 – PE.

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1509-1516 J. Táborský, A. Hejtmánková, E. Hlavatá and L. Chládek
A study of dynamics of bitter acids and xanthohumol in hop pellets during storage
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A study of dynamics of bitter acids and xanthohumol in hop pellets during storage

J. Táborský¹*, A. Hejtmánková¹, E. Hlavatá¹ and L. Chládek²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: taborsky@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Eight varieties of hop pellets were analyzed for the contents of α-acids, ß-acids and xanthohumol according to the EBC 7.7 analytical method. The pellets were extracted with acidified mixture methanol – diethylether and analyzed using HPLC with a diode-array detector and a Nova-Pak column C18. Four series of analyses were performed: immediately after the unpacking of the pellets and then after five, seven and nine months of storage at 4 °C. According to the first series of analyses, the contents were assayed as following (α-acids, ß-acids, xanthohumol resp., all in weight % in pellets): Galaxy (13.4, 8.0, 0.74), Citra (11.1, 3.0, 0.48), Tradition (8.2, 8.0, 0.58), Cascade (4.5, 5.2, 0.25), Northern Brewer (4.0, 2.9, 0.37), Sládek (3.5, 4.0, 0.48), Saaz (2.0, 3.4, 0.24), and Triskel (1.7, 3.6, 0.18). According to these results, variety Galaxy was found as the richest in all three parameters. After nine months of storage at 4 °C, the weight loss of α-acids ranged from 4.1% (Citra and Triskel) to 66.4% (Galaxy). The losses of β-acids and xanthohumol were less distinctive (from zero to 31.3% and 25.7%, resp.) and indicated good long storage possibilities of these compounds at convenient conditions (darkness, low temperature, elimination of direct influence of oxygen).

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1375–1385 N. Naumenko, A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov
The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality
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The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality

N. Naumenko,* A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov

South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of
Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia;
*Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the current research is to study the mechanisms behind how various
raw ingredients affect the quality of bread. The objects of the research were the flour used in
making the bread (consisting of gluten at 28.5%, and with an ash content of 0.55), with no added
fats; tap water or activated water (treated in a USTA-0.4/22 OM ultrasonic processor (Volna,
Russia), operating at a frequency of 22±1.65kHz and at 30% of maximum output power (400W)
for mixing dough); and plant extract additives based on stevioside and fucoidan (fully replacing
the sugar). Included in the analysis were the effects of using activated water and combined plant
extract additives on organoleptic qualities (appearance, crust colour, crumb condition, taste,
stickiness during mastication, and friability), as well as the physical and chemical qualities
(moisture content, porosity, and acidity). Yeast activity was studied in dough which had been
produced using activated water and combined plant extract additives. An Altami-136T optical
microscope (Altami, Russia) was used to study the activity of yeast cells. The effects of activated
water and combined plant extract additives were analysed by examining the microstructure.
Microscopic studies were carried out using a Jeol JEM-2100 electron microscope (Jeol Ltd,
Japan). The results confirm that activated water and combined plant extract additives may be used
to improve the quality of fresh bread.

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1386–1398 L. Nilova, N. Naumenko, I. Kalinina
A Study of the Forms of Bound Water in Bread and Bakery Products using Differential Thermal Analysis
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A Study of the Forms of Bound Water in Bread and Bakery Products using Differential Thermal Analysis

L. Nilova¹, N. Naumenko²*, I. Kalinina²

¹Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, Economics and Trade, Graduate School of Commodity and Service, Novorossiyskaya Street 50, 194021, Saint-Petersburg, Russia;
²South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russia;
* Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The objective is to study the forms of bound water in bread and bakery products using differential thermal analysis, changes to these forms corresponding to different recipe components, and changes occurring during storage. The subject of this research are bread and bakery products made of wheat flour (with gluten content of 28.5%, and ash content of 0.55%): without added fat; with tap water or activated water used for dough mixing; with varying fat content (4 and 14%); protein-enriched with cedar nut flour (5%); and dietary (food) fiberenriched with red-fruited mountain ash and sea buckthorn powder (5%). The reference samples of bread and bakery products were stored in plastic film bags at 20 ± 2 °C for a period of 72 hours. The freshness was monitored by changes in the physical-chemical parameters (moisture content, swelling capacity, friability). The various forms of bound water were determined using the method of differential thermal analysis on a simultaneous TGA-DTA/DSC thermogravimetric analyzer, with a programmable temperature regime. Based on the obtained digital data on thermogram (TG) change, using Pearson’s criterion, a mathematical model has been created to identify the linear sections with a different inclination angle which are characterized by a constant rate of water removal. For all studied samples of bakery products, 6 linear sections were identified, but statistically significant results were obtained for sections III, IV and V, with the exception of section III for bakery products with cedar flour. Use of activated water, fat, and additives of cedar flour, powders of red-fruited mountain ash and seabuckthorn in the production of bread and bakery products leads to redistribution of water forms, which is confirmed by changes in the boundaries of the linear sections, both for freshly made products and for products after storage. As a result, these products stay fresh longer.

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892-899 D. Arslan
Effects of degradation preventive agents on storage stability of anthocyanins in sour cherry concentrate
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Effects of degradation preventive agents on storage stability of anthocyanins in sour cherry concentrate

D. Arslan

Division of Food Sciences, Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey e-mail: dears@konya.edu.tr

Abstract:

In this study the effects of sugar (sucrose, 25%), gallic acid (700 mg kg-1) and ascorbic acid (700 mg kg-1) were used in sour cherry concentrate in order to prevent the degradation of main anthocyanin compounds (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (Cy-3GR), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (Cy-3R) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3G)) which are natural bioactive pigments responsible for red, blue and purple color of many fruits and vegetables. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins was evaluated by determination of anthocyanin content and calculation of the reaction rate constant, half-life of degradation, activation energy. Anthocyanin content decreased at all of the storage temperatures, as an example; there were 75, 51 and 55% reductions in Cy-3G contents of control samples (with no preventive agent) stored at 45, 24 and 4°C, respectively. The values of half-life time were above 200 days in most cases at all storage temperatures for sugar treated samples. Cy-3-GR (activation energy values 35.6-84.4 kJ mol-1) was found to be the most unstable among the other anthocyanins. The most contributing agent on anthocyanin stability was sugar, whereas ascorbic acid exhibited the lowest effect in terms of preventing anthocyanin degradation.

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