Tag Archives: sugar beet root

358–370 V. Bulgakov, S. Pascuzzi, M. Arak, F. Santoro, A.S. Anifantis, Y. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
An experimental investigation of performance levels in a new root crown cleaner
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An experimental investigation of performance levels in a new root crown cleaner

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Pascuzzi², M. Arak³, F. Santoro², A.S. Anifantis², Y. Ihnatiev⁴ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁴Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18 B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

For the purposes of carrying out field experiments using the vertical-type cleaner with its elastic cleaning blades to remove haulm residues from the crowns of standing roots, the programme for this process and the technique behind it have both been developed by basing the process on the measurement of the volume of haulm residues that are left on the root crowns after they have been cleaned by a cleaning tool that operates at pre-set values in terms of its translational velocity, its height above the soil surface, and its rate of revolution. In addition, the cleaner’s energy-and-force performance has also been determined. In this process, the new laboratory and the field experimental unit have been put together. The unit comprises a rear-mounted root crown cleaner of the rotary type with a vertical axis of rotation. During the field experiments, the general-purpose tractor which carries it moves at a pre-set velocity as registered by the track measuring wheel; the general height of the cleaning tool’s position is set within the specified range by the use of two pneumatic feeler wheels that are equipped with adjustment mechanisms. The results of the completed investigations have been statistically processed with the use of the regression analysis and correlation analysis methods. On the basis of the developed multiple-factor experiment technique, empirical mathematical models have been generated in the form of regression equations for the process of cleaning the crown’s of sugar beet roots. In accordance with the results of the calculations, it has been established that the translational velocity of the implement has the greatest level of impact on the volume of haulm residue that remains on the spherical surfaces of root crowns after cleaning. The rate of rotation for the vertical cleaning rotor and its height above the soil surface which are controlled by the two pneumatic feeler wheels have a lesser effect on the process under consideration.

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1931-1949 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak and J. Olt
The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades
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The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification,
11 Vokzalna street, UA08631 Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi street,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

A standing beet root crown cleaner has been designed. The design comprises the vertical drive shaft that carries two flat elastic cleaning blades installed on axes and connected through the articulated connection. The aim of the study was to develop the new theory of cleaning the crowns of standing roots with the use of an elastic blade installed on the vertical drive shaft in order to determine its optimal design and kinematic parameters. The first step was to design an equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the elastic cleaning blade installed on the vertical drive shaft and the spherical surface of the beet root fixed in the soil. The interaction between the blade and the root’s crown took place at the point, where all the forces that can arise during such interaction are applied. A three-dimensional coordinate system was set and the design and kinematic parameters of the considered interaction were designated. Using the original differential equations projected on the set coordinate axes, the system of four nonlinear differential equations of the three-dimensional motion of the elastic cleaning blade on the spherical surface of the root crown was set up, then it was transformed into the system of two differential equations in the normal form. Further, to determine the force that strips off the remaining haulm, which is part of the obtained system of differential equations, the problem of its analytical determination was solved separately. Also, the additional equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the elastic blade as a cantilever beam and the root’s crown was designed, the differential equation of the beam’s deflection curve (taking into account the beam’s simultaneous bending and twisting) was set up and, on the basis of it, the projections of the stripping force on the coordinate axes were found. The values of the force were substituted in the earlier obtained system of differential equations.

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1165-1192 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak and J. Olt
Theory of vibration-assisted sugar beet root lifting
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Theory of vibration-assisted sugar beet root lifting

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³⋅*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UK03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, Kiev Region, UK08631, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia;
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The vibration-assisted lifting of sugar beet roots from the soil has been gaining increasingly wide use worldwide and the majority of sugar beet harvesting machinery manufacturers produce beet harvesters equipped with just such kind of lifting units. In such units the priorities are low tractive resistance, the high quality of harvesting in terms of undamaged side surfaces of beet root bodies and intact tail parts as well as the high degree of their initial cleaning from the stuck soil. However, the parameters of the oscillatory processes generated by the vibrational lifting units used on the majority of sugar beet harvesting machinery in the market have rather average values appropriate for relatively favourable harvesting conditions (soft loose soil, beet root sizes close to the average, properly lined up planting rows etc.). But when the harvesting conditions deviate from their favourable values (especially in case of dry and strong soil), the vibrating lifters start performing the digging process with significant damage to the beet roots (breaking and tearing off the tail parts), their power consumption rises excessively sharply, the unit vibration drives prove to be unreliable. The literature source analysis has shown that any sufficiently detailed, comprehensive and dependable theory of direct beet root lifting from the soil is virtually absent. Thus, the aim of this research study has been to work out such a theoretical basis for the process of vibration-assisted beet root lifting, which will allow to calculate, in accordance with the harvesting parameters, the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the process ensuring the high quality of harvesting. A new theory has been developed, which describes the process of direct vibration-assisted beet root lifting performed under the effect of the vertical disturbing force and the pulling force, imparted to the root by the lifting unit. The obtained system of differential equations has made it possible to establish the law of motion of the beet root in the process of its direct vibration-assisted lifting and perform PC-based numerical calculations, which provide the basis for determining optimal kinematic modes of operation and design parameters of vibrational lifting units subject to the condition of maintaining sugar beet roots intact when harvesting them.

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33-45 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, J. Olt and D. Orszaghova
Use of Euler equations in research into three-dimensional oscillations of sugar beet root during its vibration-assisted lifting
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Use of Euler equations in research into three-dimensional oscillations of sugar beet root during its vibration-assisted lifting

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², J. Olt³⋅* and D. Orszaghova⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre ‘Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification’, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee
⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 2, Trieda Andreja Hlinku, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia

Abstract:

Following the results of the research into the physical process of the vibratory interaction between the digging tool and the beet root, it has been found that the latter, while standing in soil, i.e. amid an elastic medium, has strong attachment to the soil in its lower (the densest and driest) part, which virtually implies one conventional fixed point. This finding provides the basis for examination of the three-dimensional motion of the beet root’s body during its lifting from the ground in case of its asymmetric interaction with one of the shares of the vibrating digging tool. We have studied the gyration of the beet root’s body about a point initiated by its interaction with the inclined face of the vibrating digging tool share that makes oscillatory movements in the longitudinal vertical plane. The aim of the study is to establish the values of the angular displacements of the root’s body at the moment of its getting in asymmetric contact with the vibrating digging tool followed by the breaking of its bonds with the surrounding elastic medium, i.e. to develop a new mathematical model of the vibration-assisted digging of a beet root out of the soil. Basing on the use of the original equations of Euler, a new differential equation system has been obtained, which facilitates the analytical treatment of the mentioned work process. That system of differential equations for the three-dimensional oscillations of the root caused by the action of a perturbing force comprises three dynamic and three kinematic equations. It is a determined system, which makes possible its solution, i.e. the numerical modelling of the process of root lifting from the ground under different digging conditions, because it includes all necessary parameters of the vibrating digging tool, the sugar beet root and the soil surrounding it.

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