Tag Archives: sustainability

904–914 N.F. Luiz, D. Cecchin, A.R.G. Azevedo, J. Alexandre, M.T. Marvila, F.C. Da Silva, A.L.C. Paes, V.D. Pinheiro, D.F. Do Carmo, P.F.P Ferraz, C.M. Hüther, V.M.F. Da Cruz and M. Barbari
Characterization of materials used in the manufacture of ceramic tile with incorporation of ornamental rock waste
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Characterization of materials used in the manufacture of ceramic tile with incorporation of ornamental rock waste

N.F. Luiz¹, D. Cecchin¹*, A.R.G. Azevedo¹, J. Alexandre², M.T. Marvila², F.C. Da Silva¹, A.L.C. Paes², V.D. Pinheiro², D.F. Do Carmo¹, P.F.P Ferraz³, C.M. Hüther¹, V.M.F. Da Cruz⁴ and M. Barbari⁵

¹Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Engineering school, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, postal code: BR24210-240, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
²North Fluminense State University (UENF), Civil Engineering Department, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
³Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴University of Évora, Polo da Mitra - Department of Rural Engineering - Évora/Portugal
⁵University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: daianececchin@yahoo.com.br

Abstract:

The production of ceramic tiles, such as tiles, has a great environmental impact, either in the extraction of natural raw materials or gas emissions in the burning stages. The use of industrial solid waste in ceramic materials can contribute to the reduction of these impacts, according to the characteristics of solid waste and its interaction with ceramic materials in the processing steps. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the materials needed to make a ceramic tile with incorporation of ornamental rock waste (ORW), thus evaluating its main characteristics regarding the feasibility of this incorporation. The physical characterization of the clays used in the production of ceramic artifacts was performed, and for the waste the mineralogical analyzes were performed, through x-ray diffraction (XRD), microstructure analysis from confocal optical microscopy, after sintering the prototypes and chemical analysis by X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Soon after the raw materials went through the step of conformation and preparation of the prismatic specimens by the process of extrusion of the ceramic mass, with an incorporation of the ORW in 0% and 15% of the ceramic mass, for its subsequent The prototypes were sintered at three different temperatures (850 °C, 950 °C and 1,050 °C). The specimens were submitted to technological tests of mechanical resistance, water absorption, firing shrinkage and porosity to evaluate the incorporation viability. The results indicated the presence of quartz particles in all raw materials, and also that the clays of the study region are predominantly kaolinitic. The presence of these materials in the ceramic masses directly influences the micrographs, because they result in the formation of liquid phase, inert particles that can turn the site into a stress concentration point and when incorporated in the ORW the specimens met the technical specifications of the Brazilian standard for application on ceramic tiles. The results found in the technological tests carried out, that the incorporation of 15% of ornamental rock waste in both clays did not affect the tile properties, indicating the feasibility of incorporating this waste in civil construction, minimizing the impacts generated.

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1220–1234 I. S. Dunmade, E. Akinlabi and M. Daramola
A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa
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A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa

I. S. Dunmade¹*, E. Akinlabi² and M. Daramola³

¹Mount Royal University, Calgary, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Environmental Science, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3K 0C3, Canada
²University of Johannesburg, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
³University of Witwatersrand, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa
*Correspondence: idunmade@mtroyal.ca

Abstract:

West African region has abundant second generation biomass resources consisting of agricultural residues, forest resources; municipal solid wastes; and animal wastes that could be harnessed to produce liquid biofuels. A number of countries in the region have developed energy policies to foster bioenergy production. Despite the national intent expressed in various countries’ bioenergy policies, development of bioenergy facilities and liquid biofuels production from cellulosic sources in the region are essentially at the research and development stage. This study, through comprehensive reviews of various bioenergy policies, news reports, related journal articles and development reports, examined the reasons for the delay in the development of bio-refineries in the region. The study then articulated feasible solutions to address the challenges. Among the discovered causes of the delay are over-dependence on fossil fuels and defective energy policy implementation manifesting in the form of lack of continuity. Other issues include poor private sector’s involvement and inadequate incentives necessary for private investors’ participation. This study concludes that boosting liquid biofuels production in West Africa would require public-private collaboration that is built from bottom-up. Successful bioenergy facilities’ development in the region would need to be community level scaled rather than being mega projects, and it would need to involve participation of communities as collaborators. In addition, to ensure sustainable production, it would be necessary to incorporate public enlightenment, and grant tax incentives to investors. Moreover, it would need to include a sustainable technology training package that would empower local engineers and technicians to not only develop bioenergy facilities that are suitable for the locality but also to maintain and improve them. Furthermore, Continuity and consistency in policy implementation and financing prioritization are essential to boosting liquid biofuel production in the West African region and to enable West African region to occupy its rightful place in the global bioeconomy.

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2242–2259 N. Escobar,, N.J. Romero and C.I. Jaramillo
Typology of small producers in transition to agroecological production
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Typology of small producers in transition to agroecological production

N. Escobar¹,*, N.J. Romero² and C.I. Jaramillo³

¹University of Cundinamarca, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, 18th Diagonal # 20-29, Fusagasuga, Colombia
²University of Tolima, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, Barrio Santa Helena, Ibague, Colombia
³Agrosavia. National Research Center of Agriculture, Nataima, Colombia
*Correspondence: nataliaescobar@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

Agroecology is now emerging as the fundamental science to guide the conversion of conventional production systems to more diversified and self-sufficient systems. The agroecological transition is defined as the gradual change that farmers undergo to adapt and move from more conventional towards agroecological farming principles, encompassing technological, societal, institutional and organisational changes in the food system. To analyze a transition process, it is initially necessary to understand how agroecosystems work (their structure and processes), and the different ways human beings intervene an ecosystem in order to transform it for productive purposes.Farm systems typology and classification techniques are used to guide strategic lines of research, sectorial policies, and promote sustainable development in response to farmer’s needs. Determining multidimensional classification methods in agricultural systems is necessary, considering both the variables inherent to the production system and those of an external nature that indirectly impact the development and long-term sustainability of production systems. One of the purposes of this research was to characterize agricultural production based on sustainability systems and environmental, social, and economic indicators. The study was carried out based on data collected from 71 farm surveys, considering the social, economic, environmental, and technological dimensions. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were done. Three types of production systems were obtained: Group I, organic producers in transition; Group II, conventional producers in transition to organic production; and Group III, conventional producers interested in organic production. Producers need to focus on processes that allow them to improve their skills to develop human talent and social capital in terms of integration, collaborative work, trust, political and cultural capital, so that they can make progress easily and start implementing agroecological, infrastructure, and natural resources management practices, while improving their living standards. The information yielded by a typology process allows for us to know the current state of agricultural production systems based on the implementation of agroecological practices; thus facilitating the preparation and implementation of participatory plans and/or integrative proposals that promote agrofood sustainability.

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2115- 2126 L. Zihare, I. Muizniece and D. Blumberga
A holistic vision of bioeconomy: the concept of transdisciplinarity nexus towards sustainable development
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A holistic vision of bioeconomy: the concept of transdisciplinarity nexus towards sustainable development

L. Zihare*, I. Muizniece and D. Blumberga

Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Āzenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.zihare@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Current issue of bioeconomy development has been largely addressed on a linear or interdisciplinary level, however holistic view of bioeconomy requires a transdisciplinary system analysis. Developed methodology clarifies vision on bioeconomy definition, bioeconomy disciplines and disciplinary definition in context of nexus interlinkage, in the result concept of transdisciplinary approach connection to bioeconomy is determined as processes for sustainable bioeconomy, that not only replace fossil resources with biobased resources, but strengthens different disciplines, taken into account interlinkages, knowledge, and stakeholders and limitations set by planetary boundaries, different dimensions should be included in transition towards sustainable bioeconomy. Methodology bases on critical literature analysis. Different bioeconomy disciplines are defined and the obtained results are represented graphically. The obtained results can be used for further research as a transdisciplinarity basis of the bioeconomy, studying specific systems, factors influencing them and evaluating potential scenarios and their impacting tools. Results from implementing holistic vision would provide practical benefit to policy makers and industry actors by providing an analysis how to improve industrial practice, policy and how more effectively transfer to sustainable bioeconomy.

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198-211 K. Ouakli, M. Benidir, S. Ikhlef and H. Ikhlef
Typological analysis of the sustainability of dairy cattle farming in the Chelif valley (Algeria)
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Typological analysis of the sustainability of dairy cattle farming in the Chelif valley (Algeria)

K. Ouakli¹², M. Benidir³*, S. Ikhlef¹ and H. Ikhlef¹

¹Higher National School of Agronomy, El Harrach, DZ16200 Algiers, Algeria
²Saad Dahlab University, Department of Agronomy, DZ9000 Blida, Algeria
³Algeria’s National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRAA), Setif DZ19000, Algeria
*Corresponding author: moh19ina@yahoo.fr

Abstract:

To identify production systems that could increase local milk production in a sustainable manner, a study was conducted on 135 dairy farms in the three main plains of the Chelif Valley, Algeria. These have been evaluated for environmental, social and economic sustainability based on the IDEA (Farm Sustainability Indicators) method.
The Principal Component Analysis identified 4 different types dairy production systems, namely Type 1: Medium-size dairy farms with cereal crop production; Type 2: Small-size dairy farms; Type 3: Medium-size dairy farms diversified crop production, and Type 4: Large-size dairy farms with diversified crop production.
Comparative analysis of ecological sustainability showed better results for medium-size dairy farms with cereal crop production (52.3 ± 10.17 / 100 points) and for large-size dairy farms with diversified crop production (51.6 ± 10.38 / 100 points), while the economic sustainability was better for medium-size dairy farms with diversified crop production (51.6 ± 19.20 / 100 points). On the other hand, social security was the weak point for all farm types.
On the regional level, it appeared that agri-environmental scores were better in Middle and Low Chelif valley while the best economic performances were recorded in High Chelif valley. On the regional level, it appears that the scores of agri-environmental scales are better in the middle and low Chelif while the economic performances are comparable between the three localities.

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