Tag Archives: technology

1388-1395 T. Kince, E. Straumite, D. Klava, Z. Kruma, K. Abelniece and A. Balgalve
Effects of processing conditions on physical parameters of triticale flakes
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Effects of processing conditions on physical parameters of triticale flakes

T. Kince¹, E. Straumite¹*, D. Klava¹, Z. Kruma¹, K. Abelniece² and A. Balgalve²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Rigas iela 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Ltd Felici, Rigas gatve 8, LV-2164 Adazi, Adazu novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: evita.straumite@llu.lv

Abstract:

Consumer interest in breakfast cereal flakes has increased during the last few years. Various technologies, used to produce flakes, significantly influence their quality parameters and shelf-life stability. The main purpose of the present research was to investigate how different processing methods affect the physical parameters of triticale flakes. For obtaining the flakes, cleaned whole triticale grains were treated using the following technologies: dry processing (hot air), steam processing and soaking with subsequent steaming. For preparing the flakes different kilning methods and traditional flaking rolls were used. Traditionally made rolled and dried whole grain triticale flakes were analysed as a control sample. Using standard methods, the flakes’ moisture content, water activity, microstructure, swelling capacity and colour changes were analysed. The gap settings of flake rollers do not influence significantly (P < 0.05) changes of starch during processing. However, the starch granules were fully transformed into sugars in the flake samples with greater thickness. Non-significant (P < 0.05) steaming and hot air drying (toasting) conditions’ effects were observed on the changes of the starch granules during processing. Strong correlation was determined during the analysis of water activity and moisture content. The moisture content of the ready- to-eat flakes varied from 2.54% to 10.66%, and the water activity value was from 0.108 to 0.494. Compared with traditionally processed flakes (control sample) the colour of the flakes prepared using other technologies changed significantly, the ΔE values varied from 9.587 to 18.554. The colour of the soaked-steamed-rolled-hot air dried samples was similar but those significantly differed from the colour of soaked-dried-rolled-hot air dried flake samples. The soaked-dried-rolled-hot air dried flakes were darker compared with other analysed flake samples.

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1417-1424 Z. Kruma, E. Straumite, T. Kince, D. Klava, K. Abelniece and A. Balgalve
Influence of Technological Parameters on Chemical Composition of Triticale Flakes
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Influence of Technological Parameters on Chemical Composition of Triticale Flakes

Z. Kruma¹*, E. Straumite¹, T. Kince¹, D. Klava¹, K. Abelniece² and A. Balgalve²

¹University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Rigas iela 22, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Ltd Felici, Rigas gatve 8, LV-2164, Adazi, Adazu novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: zanda.kruma@llu.lv

Abstract:

Triticale is hybrid crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) and in last years it become more popular for food applications, including flake production. Different approaches are developed to improve flakes technology by applying different cooking, rolling, toasting parameters resulting in high quality products. All these technologies influence also nutrition quality of product due to the different stability of these compounds during mechanical and thermal treatment. The aim of current experiment was to investigate the influence of technological parameters on chemical composition of triticale flakes. In current experiment triticale grains and triticale flakes obtained by different technologies was tested. For evaluation of the influence of technological parameters, different flaking and rolling parameters were tested. For all samples were determined composition of basic nutrients (fats, proteins, fibres, sugars, ash), minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Zn, P), vitamins, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Triticale has high nutritional quality, containing significant amounts of protein, fibres, vitamins and minerals. Technological processes significantly influence cereals composition, but it depends on parameters tested. Control sample showed lower results and hierarchical cluster analyses showed that samples 1/3/1, 2/1/2/1, 2/1/3/1, 2/1/4/1 are similar in composition of bioactive compounds. Results showed that for selection of the best method for flaking physical and/or sensory properties should be taken in account.

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33-38 V. Dubrovin and M. Melnychuk
Cleaner Production of Biomass and Biofuels
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Cleaner Production of Biomass and Biofuels

V. Dubrovin and M. Melnychuk

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
15 Geroiv Oborony Str., 03041 Kiev, Ukraine
e-mail: dubrovin@nauu.kiev.ua; maksym@nauu.kiev.ua

Abstract:

Ukrainian agriculture is an industry which produces a huge quantity of biomass. The main part of the biomass potential is made up by straw. By moderate estimations only 20% of the total amount of straw can be used for energy production. All plant growing and biomass processing technologies can be based on cleaner production methodology. Only a few ecological options in corn growing technology gave real profit, which was ca 220 UAH per hectare. The main steps for rearing Trichogramma insects are technical services in laboratory conditions and soft implementation of them on agricultural plants by special aircraft. The most important result of the research is an overview of the possibilities of Ukraine to cover up to 12% of the total primary biomass energy demand for cleaner biofuel production.

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341-348 M. Schlegel, N. Kanswohl, D. Rössel and A. Sakalauskas
Essential technical parameters for effective biogas production
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Essential technical parameters for effective biogas production

M. Schlegel¹, N. Kanswohl¹, D. Rössel² and A. Sakalauskas³

¹Professorship of Technology and Process Engineering of Sustainable Agriculture, Institute forFarm Animals Sciences and Technology, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 8,18059 Rostock, Germany; e-mail: mathias.schlegel@uni-rostock.de
²Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus San Luis Potosí, Iturbide No. 73, Salinas de Hgo., S.L.P.,C.P. 78600. México. e-mail: edietmar@colpos.mx
³Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11,LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania; e-mail: zum.katedra@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Rising agrarian raw material prices in 2006 had a negative impact on the biogas sector in Germany, leading to the search for potentials for optimisation of production. A problem is the workload of the block-type thermal power station (BTPS). This is caused by biogas process disturbances, construction errors, technical problems and management mistakes as well as by oversizing of the BTPS. Technical problems appear in particular with BTPS and aggregates, stirring devices and fermenter heatings, measuring and control technology as well as foil caps. The BTPS is an essential part of the economic efficiency of biogas production. A 2% increase in efficiency, to 40%, lowers the costs about 1 Cent kWh -1el . To achieve sufficientstirring power, the device type, heights and angle adjustment are vital. The substrate dosing engine must be adjusted to the particular substrates. The fermentation has to be controlled continuously. Parameters such as substrate amount, temperature, pH-factor, fermenter chamber load, gas amount and composition, ammonium concentration and short-chained fatty acids should be controlled regularly. Large temperature variations can lead to foam formation, resulting in a reduction of the gas yield. Disinfectants, antibiotics and a too tall fermenter chamber load can also have a negative influence. Low methane content often may often result from high sulphur and ammonia content in biogas composition, high aerial dosage accompanying desulphurisation as well as to coarse input material.

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451-455 R. Virbickaite, A. P. Sirvydas, P. Kerpauskas and R. Vasinauskiene
The comparison of thermal and mechanical systems of weed control
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The comparison of thermal and mechanical systems of weed control

R. Virbickaite, A. P. Sirvydas, P. Kerpauskas and R. Vasinauskiene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Heat and BiotechnologyEngineering, Kauno r. Studentu 15, LT 53356, Lithuania; tel: (+370) 37 75 23 17;fax: (+370) 37 75 23 24; e-mail: v.rasaa@gmail.com

Abstract:

In ecological farming weed control after sowing time is pursued by mechanical, and recently, by thermal means. In thermal weed control both the surface of the soil and the roots of cultural plants remain undisturbed, however, the l cultured plant experiences a thermal shock. This combination of factors has a positive influence on productivity. Data for the comparable efficiency of thermal and mechanical weed control research results in 2001–2003 and 2005 are presented. 16 weeds were destroyed. Thermal weed control for annual weeds is 22.5% more effective in comparison with the mechanical method, however the latter is 32% more effective for perennial weeds.

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