Utilization of animal by-products and waste generated in Estonia
¹Competence Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia 2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. Three main directions must be considered in valorisation studies of animal by-products:1. Creation of a monitoring system that reflects the generation of animal by-products andwaste in the food production chain (livestock farming companies – meat industries – marketing and consumer); this includes mapping of by-products and waste, and the creation of a relevant database and models;2. Study of pre-treatment of various types of animal by-products and waste, whichincludes of size-reduction and fractioning as well as a physical and chemical study;3. Studies concerning the use of animal by-products and waste fractions (fat, protein,carbohydrates etc.) for the production of goods and energy. Large amounts of waste and by-products, which are suitable for further use, are generated in the food production chain. Animal by-products and waste consist of organic substances, which contain fat, protein, carbohydrates and often also important bioactive compounds. However, their use in Estonia is still rather modest and there is no complex approach to this. For example, the common technology for processing the by-products generated in meat industry is not designed for optimal use of protein-rich materials suitable for food (connective tissue, tendons, bones, rind and blood) to reduce the deficit of food protein of animal origin, but instead it is used for technical purposes, poured into sewerage or burnt. Many positive examples of the reuse of animal by-products and food waste can be found in European Union Member States (Denmark, Finland, Germany and Austria). This reduces environmental pollution and supplies energy production and industry with additional raw material. In this paper establishing research for a complex approach in the utilisation of animal by-products and waste for food, feed and technical purpose in the production chain is proposed. Keywords: animal by-products, food, feed, energy, biofuels.
INTRODUCTIONFood production volumes generally meet the biological needs of the world’spopulation, but up to a billion people around the world are suffering from hunger due to the uneven availability of food. Deficit for proteins, including protein of animal origin, is high. Proteins of animal origin should comprise approximately half of the255