Utilization of urban waste in bioethanol production: potential and technical solutions
¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: email@example.com 2Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
In urban forestry and greening millions of tons of lignocellulosic waste is produced every year. Although lignocellulosic materials are considered one of the most promising feedstock for the bioethanol production, biomass from urban greening and forestry goes unused. Aim of this research was to investigate the potential of such waste biomass for bioethanol production. Woody and non-woody vegetation from different sources was investigated: old and fresh leaves, and mixed waste from urban greening which contained grass, twigs, and leaves. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents in the samples were determined using fibre analysis. Dilute acid was used for pre-treatment at temperature of 130°C in order to compare yields from different methods. Thermochemical pre-treatment was followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Produced glucose and ethanol contents were measured using electrochemical analyser. Waste from urban greening had the highest cellulose content of 22.96% and gave the best glucose and ethanol yields, 154.5 g kg-1 and 62.5 g kg-1, respectively when the sample was pre-treated with dilute H2SO4. In addition, map analysis was used to assess the area manageable by urban forestry and greening in the city of Tartu to estimate the potential of greening and forestry waste as a substrate for bioethanol production that could be used as a fuel in city’s public transportation system. In conclusion, it was shown that the waste from urban greening and forestry is a very promising raw material for biofuel production considering its localization and high cellulose content.