Tag Archives: waste management

1199–1206 K.K. Singh, A. Meshram, D. Gautam and A. Jain
Hydrogen production using waste aluminium dross: from industrial waste to next-generation fuel
Abstract |
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Hydrogen production using waste aluminium dross: from industrial waste to next-generation fuel

K.K. Singh*, A. Meshram, D. Gautam and A. Jain

Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, IN221005 Varanasi India
*Correspondence: kksingh.met@iitbhu.ac.in

Abstract:

This article describes the production of hydrogen from white aluminium dross, an industrial waste generated in the aluminium smelter plants. Hydrogen is generated by metal-water reaction between aluminium and water in presence of alkalis like sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Aluminium dross is described as a heterogeneous material with its major constituents being metallic aluminium, alumina and other salt fluxes like NaCl and KCl. Utilizing the metallic aluminium content entrapped in the matrix of alumina for the metal-water reaction has been the driving force for the waste recycling and simultaneous hydrogen production. Bulk aluminium dross was crushed and downsized. The finer fraction of the powdered aluminium dross is used for the experiments. The effects of dross in the alkaline solution, temperature of the solution and the time of the reaction were studied to understand the generation of hydrogen. The alkaline solution breaks the protective layer of alumina and exposes the entrapped aluminium content to water, thereby commencing the hydrogen liberation.

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365-376 V. Chiteculo, A. Brunerová, P. Surový and M. Brožek
Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes
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Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes

V. Chiteculo¹*, A. Brunerová²*, P. Surový¹ and M. Brožek²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Department of Forest management, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz; chiteculo@fld.czu.cz

Abstract:

In the Federative Republic of Brazil, Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) and Garapa (Apuleia leiocarpa) trees are intensively harvested. The yield of one log is approximately 45–55%, which indicates a great amount of produced wood waste biomass.Present research monitored the suitability of wood waste biomass from Jatoba and Garapa trees for bio–briquette for solid biofuel production. The research was focused on chemical parameters,and energy potential of such biomass kinds. Jatoba wood waste biomass was used for the production of bio–briquette fuel and its final mechanical quality was investigated by determination of their mechanical quality indicators. Results of chemical analysis (in wet basis) exhibited great level of ash content in case of both species (Jatoba – 0.31%, Garapa – 3.02%), as well as high level of energy potential; net calorific value equal to 18.92 MJ kg–1 for Jatoba and to 18.395 MJ kg–1 for Garapa. Analysis of elementary composition proved following levels of oxygen content: Jatoba – 41.10%, Garapa – 39.97%. Mechanical analysis proved bio–briquette samples volume density ρ equal to 896.34 kg m–3 which indicated quality bio–briquette fuel, while the level of rupture force RF occurred at a lower level – 47.05 N mm–1. Most important quality indicator, the mechanical durability DU, unfortunately, occurred at a lower level; DU = 77.6% compared to the minimal level of bio–briquette fuels intended for commercial sales which must be > 90%. Overall analysis proved materials suitability for energy generation purpose with certain limitations which can improve by changing production parameters of briquetting.

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656-668 A. Brunerová, H. Roubík, M. Brožek and J. Velebil
Agricultural residues in Indonesia and Vietnam and their potential for direct combustion: with a focus on fruit processing and plantation crops
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Agricultural residues in Indonesia and Vietnam and their potential for direct combustion: with a focus on fruit processing and plantation crops

A. Brunerová¹*, H. Roubík², M. Brožek¹ and J. Velebil³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Energy consumption in Indonesia and Vietnam has grown rapidly in recent decades. To meet the energy needs of both countries, a higher utilisation of waste biomass sources may represent an adequate solution. Investigated samples represent major crop residues (waste biomass) originating mainly from the agriculture sector of the selected countries. Herbaceous waste biomass from Indonesia is, namely, cassava stems and root peelings (Manihot esculenta), coffee leaves (Coffea arabica), cacao leaves (Theobroma cacao), banana leaves (Musa acuminata), bamboo leaves (Bambusoideae spp.) and aloe vera leaves (Aloe vera). Furthermore, fruit and aquatic waste biomass originating from Vietnam is, specifically, sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum), durian peelings (Durio zibethinus), rambutan peelings (Nephelium lappaceum), banana peelings (Musa acuminata), water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). All mentioned types of waste biomass were subjected to proximate and calorimetric analysis: moisture, ash and volatile matter contents (%) and higher and lower heating values (MJ kg–1). Obtained values indicated the highest level of ash content in fruit biomass samples in the case of sugarcane bagasse (0.84%), in herbaceous biomass in the case of cassava stems (3.14%) and in aquatic biomass in the case of water hyacinth (14.16%). The highest levels of lower heating values were achieved by following samples (best samples from each biomass type): cassava stems (17.5 MJ kg–1); banana peelings (17.3 MJ kg–1) and water hyacinth (12.8 MJ kg–1). The overall evaluation of all observed samples indicated that the best suitability for energy utilisation by direct combustion of investigated representatives is fruit waste biomass, followed by herbaceous waste biomass and then aquatic waste biomass.

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xxx V. Chiteculo, A. Brunerová, P. Surový and M. Brožek
Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes
Abstract |

Management of Brazilian hardwood species (Jatoba and Garapa) wood waste biomass utilization for energy production purposes

V. Chiteculo¹*, A. Brunerová²*, P. Surový¹ and M. Brožek²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Department of Forest management, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: brunerova@tf.czu.cz; chiteculo@fld.czu.cz

Abstract:

In the Federative Republic of Brazil, Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) and Garapa (Apuleia leiocarpa) trees are intensively harvested. The yield of one log is approximately 45–55%, which indicates a great amount of produced wood waste biomass.Present research monitored the suitability of wood waste biomass from Jatoba and Garapa trees for bio–briquette for solid biofuel production. The research was focused on chemical parameters,and energy potential of such biomass kinds. Jatoba wood waste biomass was used for the production of bio–briquette fuel and its final mechanical quality was investigated by determination of their mechanical quality indicators. Results of chemical analysis (in wet basis) exhibited great level of ash content in case of both species (Jatoba – 0.31%, Garapa – 3.02%), as well as high level of energy potential; net calorific value equal to 18.92 MJ kg–1 for Jatoba and to 18.395 MJ kg–1 for Garapa. Analysis of elementary composition proved following levels of oxygen content: Jatoba – 41.10%, Garapa – 39.97%. Mechanical analysis proved bio–briquette samples volume density ρ equal to 896.34 kg m–3 which indicated quality bio–briquette fuel, while the level of rupture force RF occurred at a lower level – 47.05 N mm–1. Most important quality indicator, the mechanical durability DU, unfortunately, occurred at a lower level; DU = 77.6% compared to the minimal level of bio–briquette fuels intended for commercial sales which must be > 90%. Overall analysis proved materials suitability for energy generation purpose with certain limitations which can improve by changing production parameters of briquetting.

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1782–1794 H. Roubík, J. Mazancová, R.C. Situmeang, A. Brunerová and T.M. Simatupang
Livestock manure management practices in rural households in Tapanuli Utara regency of North Sumatra
Abstract |
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Livestock manure management practices in rural households in Tapanuli Utara regency of North Sumatra

H. Roubík¹, J. Mazancová¹*, R.C. Situmeang², A. Brunerová³ and T.M. Simatupang²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Del Institute of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Department of Engineering Management, Kabupaten Toba Samosir, Sumatera Utara ID 22381, Indonesia
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Corresponding author: mazan@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Livestock manure management is a big challenge for low income economies including the region of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Currently, low percentages of manure managed cause illegal disposals, and negative impacts on public health and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the current trends among livestock manure management practices in rural households and to recognize potential problems with it. The questionnaire survey using randomly selected households (n = 196) was administered in the province of North Sumatra, Tapanuli Utara regency, from July to August 2014; then followed by several field visits from August to September 2016. Data obtained in the survey were analysed with descriptive statistics and cross tabulation. Majority (81%) of rural households handle manure in the process of either composting (75%) or sun-drying (6%). Remaining 6% of the respondents does not handle manure at all. Manure could represent valuable energy and plant nutrition resource, if used appropriately. However, if not handled at all or handled inappropriately, it can lead to the environmental problems. Our results revealed that current ways of stabling of livestock are inappropriate from the environmental perspective. The stabling has got only dusty earthen floor, which makes difficult for farmers wash out the excrements and pollution. Hence, there is a need to improve manure management practice to eliminate potential threats as current practices do not protect either humans, animals or environment against the risk of contamination with potential zoonotic pathogens.

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