Tag Archives: water erosion.

xxx A. Melicharová, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Impacts of some cultivated crops on water erosion in the Central Bohemia Region
Abstract |
Full text PDF (289 KB)

Impacts of some cultivated crops on water erosion in the Central Bohemia Region

A. Melicharová*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: melicharovaa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper aims at assessing the impact of crops on water erosion parameters. Water erosion is the most common cause of damaging agricultural land in the Czech Republic. This is due to the large average slope of land and the prevailing soil types. The field trial was based on a site with an average slope of 5.4°. The primary objective was to assess the effect of the crop on the surface runoff and soil loss. The crops cultivated in the experiment were winter wheat, rape, potatoes, corn and oats (conventional tillage for all variants). Black fallow was used as the comparative variant (without vegetation). There is a light cambisol on the experimental field. To assess erosion, the method of microplots was used. The physical properties of the soil were also evaluated. The results show the risk of growing wide-rows crops (potatoes, corn). The soil loss in these crops was similar to the variant without vegetation.

Key words:

, , ,




754–760 P. Novák, P. Kovaříček, J. Hůla and M. Buřič
Surface water runoff of different tillage technologies for maize
Abstract |
Full text PDF (298 KB)

Surface water runoff of different tillage technologies for maize

P. Novák¹, P. Kovaříček², J. Hůla¹ and M. Buřič¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present paper is focused on the evaluation of efficiency of soil-conservation technologies to reduce surface water runoff in Central Bohemia Region. In the last years, there has been an increase in maize planting on hillslope plots due to the construction of many biogas plants in conditions of Czech Republic. It enhances the risk of water erosion because the occurrence of sloping lands in the Czech Republic is high. To evaluate the technologies of stand establishment a field trial was laid out with four treatments of maize planting. The trial was laid out on a plot with light soil and slope of around 12%. It was a multi-year trial. To measure erosion parameters a rainfall simulator was used (measurement of surface runoff). The values obtained in two seasons show a positive effect of the soil surface cover by organic matter when reduced soil tillage was used. Soil loss also decreased at the same time compared to treatments with conventional soil tillage. It was found up to six-fold reduction in surface runoff by appropriate soil tillage technology during two seasons of measurement.

Key words:

, ,




1629–1635 S. Kovář, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season
Abstract |
Full text PDF (376 KB)

Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season

S. Kovář*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kovars@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The soil belongs to the most valuable parts of the planet Earth. It is, endangered by water erosion, which causes huge destruction every year, or damage to farmland. More than half of the agricultural land in the Czech Republic is threatened by water erosion. The measurement was performed in the location Nesperská Lhota. The trial has been established on loamy sand Cambisol. In the field experiment, there were created 6 different variants which wad differed by soil tillage and crop. In the individual variants maize and oats were located. The field trial has been existing for a long time, as it was founded in 2009. Two measuring methods of water infiltration were used for the measurements: a mini disk infiltrometer and a single ring. The measurement was performed in the period of September 2016 before the harvest of maize. The soil aggregates were already stabilized at that time after all tillage operations. The measurement result showed the difference between the methods of soil tillage. The greatest ability of infiltration had a variant of maize with inter-row oats. Surprisingly, it was followed by maize, which was processed by ploughing technology. The lowest infiltration capacity was showed by oats reduced by soil tillage. A variant without vegetation had the second lowest infiltration. Our results obtained at rate of water infiltration into the soil affirm the need to control measures in the late vegetative stages. It is important for most of the rainfall to be quickly infiltrated so that it prevents the formation of massive surface runoff.

Key words:

, , ,




63-72 D. Gutu, J. Hůla, P. Kovaříček and P. Novák,
The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff
Abstract |
Full text PDF (813 KB)

The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff

D. Gutu¹, J. Hůla¹, P. Kovaříček² and P. Novák¹,*

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering ,p.r.i. , Drnovska 507, 161 01 Prague 6 – Ruzyne, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The system with permanent driving tracks at the module of machines working width 6 metres, practised in a 10-ha field, allowed to consistently separate the area designed for restricted traffic lanes of farm machines from the production area of the field. The aim of the study is to assess the selected indicators of the condition of topsoil, which is characterized by soil porosity, indicators of soil workability, soil ability to absorb water from rainfall and soil loss by wash after four years of controlled traffic system application in a field trial. Indicators of soil condition were evaluated in four variants with different wheel impacts of tractors and other machines on the soil. A field trial was established in the spring 2010; the measured values in the study are from 2013 and 2014. The results show an advantage, which represents concentration of passages into permanent tracks aimed at protection of most part of a plot from soil compaction. Hardness of clods after tillage in autumn 2013 was five times higher in places with random traffic (356.7 kPa) than outside traffic lanes in the system of controlled traffic (70 kPa). An important result is that the system with permanent traffic lanes made it possible to increase the soil capacity of taking up water under intensive rainfall – in comparison to a part of the land with random passes. The results of measurements with a rainfall simulator in April 2014 showed that cumulative surface runoff after sixty minutes was 7.6 l m-2 on the land with random passes while 3.9 l m-2 outside the traffic lanes (32% of the area of the field). The soil loss by wash during water surface runoff was also lower with controlled traffic compared to the variant with random passes. Therefore it is to assume that suitable application of the controlled traffic farming system may be a contribution to soil protection from water erosion.

Key words:

, , ,