Tag Archives: weeds

xxx I. Guedioura, B. Rahmoune, A. Khezzaren, A. Dahoumane and N. Laouar
Combined effect of soil practices and chemical treatments on weeds growth, soil features, and yield performance in field wheat crop under Mediterranean climate
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Combined effect of soil practices and chemical treatments on weeds growth, soil features, and yield performance in field wheat crop under Mediterranean climate

I. Guedioura¹*, B. Rahmoune², A. Khezzaren⁴, A. Dahoumane⁵ and N. Laouar³

¹High National School of Agronomy, Conservation, Management and Improvement of Forest Ecosystems laboratory, DZ16000 El Harrach, Algeria
²High National School of Agronomy, Genetics Ressources and Biotechnology Laboratory, DZ16000 El Harrach, Algeria
³High National School of Agronomy DZ16000 El Harrach, Algeria
⁴National Company for the Production of Agricultural Equipment (PMAT),
DZ16058 Mohammadia, Algeria
⁵Establishment of green spaces developments Algiers (EDVAL), DZ16000 El Harrach, Algeria
*Correspondence: i-guedioura@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Soil management techniques influence the biological and physicochemical properties of the soil and lead to changes in soil quality and cover and thus on crop profitability and yield. In this study, the effects of short-term tillage and no-tillage methods combined with a chemical treatment using Glyphosate on weed abundance, selected soil physical properties and yield components were evaluated in durum wheat under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The no-tillage (NT) treatment resulted in higher weed community density during wheat cultivation and moisture consumption than the conventional tillage treatment. The tillage practice and the application of Glyphosate showed a very high efficiency on weeds. Furthermore, the results obtained showed a significant variation and effect of the treatments on the soil characteristics. The application of the no-tillage technique induced a small increase in soil moisture at the seed germination stage (25.6%), while at the last sampling a small increase was recorded in the CT treatment (9.5% for CT and 8.8% for NT). The results of the soil porosity, showed during the whole test period high values in the conventional technique (with or without herbicide application); but for the resistance to soil penetration, the results showed higher values in the no-till technique. Finally, the effect of the tillage system on crop yield was evaluated. In our study, the results showed that significant increases in the number of heads per m2 (351.3 heads per m2), the number of grains per head (45.8) and the weight of 1,000 grains (41.2 g) were obtained with the tillage treatment combined with glyphosate application. When comparing the two tillage methods, the highest values were always revealed with the tillage technique.

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2386–2398 Z. Pacanoski and A. Mehmeti
Pre-emergence grass weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with soil applied premixed herbicides influenced by precipitations
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Pre-emergence grass weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with soil applied premixed herbicides influenced by precipitations

Z. Pacanoski¹ and A. Mehmeti²*

¹Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
²University of Prishtina, Department of Plant Protection, Bill Clinton p.n., XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Corresponding address: arben.mehmeti@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

The field trials were conducted during two winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively) to estimate weed control, and influence of herbicides on grain yield with PRE premixes in winter wheat crops. The field trials were conducted with ‘Ingenio’ and ‘Pobeda’ winter wheat cultivars which were sowed in a well-prepared soil seedbed at a seeding rate of 220 and 240 kg ha-1. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four replicates and elementary plots 25 m2. The efficacy of PRE herbicides varied with treatments among weed species and periods of efficacy estimation, regions and years, respectively. Overall, the performance of the PRE herbicide premixes correlated with the weather conditions. All PRE herbicide premixes effectively reduced the dominant weed species Milium vernale, Papaver rhoeas, and Galium aparine in the Bitola region in 2013–2014, but not in 2014–2015 due to heavy rain during the first two weeks of herbicide application. In contrast, the limited precipitation after PRE application may have contributed to the poor performance of PRE herbicides in the Probištip region in 2013 compared with 2014. In the Bitola region, the lowest crop yield was obtained in plots treated with diflufenican + isoproturon (2,960 kg ha-1) in both growing seasons. In the Probištip region, the wheat grain yields in 2013–2014 following all PRE applied herbicides were significantly lower (between 520 and 800 kg ha-1) than weed-free control. In 2014–2015, diflufenican + isoproturon herbicide treatment produced the lowest yield of 2,530 kg ha-1, whereas chlortoluron + triasulfuronwas the highest-yielding herbicide treatment (2,820 kg ha-1). However, results indicated that in Bitola region comparatively higher yield were found in plots treated with chlortoluron + triasulfuron (3,450 kg ha-1), in both growing seasons, also in Probistip region herbicide chlortoluron + triasulfuron achieved higher yield (2,820 kg ha-1), in both growing seasons).

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430–437 G. Glatkova and Z. Pacanoski
Evaluating the effects of application modes and soil types on the herbicide efficacy and crop yield of pendimethalin and clomazone on transplanted pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
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Evaluating the effects of application modes and soil types on the herbicide efficacy and crop yield of pendimethalin and clomazone on transplanted pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

G. Glatkova¹* and Z. Pacanoski²

¹University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Agriculture Institute, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3A, MK1000 Skopje, Republic Macedonia
²University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty for Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
*Correspondence: gordana_glatkova@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Field experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in two locations Kochani and Drachevo in Republic of Macedonia to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of pendimethalin and clomazone on transplanted pepper according to mode of application, (pretransplant -PRE-T and pretransplant incorporated -PTI) and soil types (alluvial soil and vertisol). The weed population in both years and locations mainly consisted annual spring and summer grasses and broadleaf weeds. Weed competition significantly reduced pepper yield. There was no recorded difference between the efficacy of pendimethalin PRE-T and pendimethalin PTI. However, the efficacy of clomazone PTI was higher than that of clomazone PRE-T in both experimental years and locations, indicating incorporation into soil if critical for clamazone. Both pendimethalin and clomazone had low efficacy on Solanum nigrum L. Pepper plants were not visibly injured by any herbicides treatments. In summary, locations and soil types did not affect herbicide efficacy and pepper selectivity. Pepper yield was markedly affected by herbicide efficacy in both years and locations.

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1796-1808 Z. Pacanoski and A. Mehmeti
POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Z. Pacanoski¹ and A. Mehmeti²*

¹University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty for Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
²University of Prishtina, Department of Plant Protection, Bill Clinton p.n., XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: arben.mehmeti@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during two winter wheat-growing seasons to evaluate the efficacy of some new POST herbicides and herbicide combinations for those effective controls of weeds in winter wheat crops in the Republic of Macedonia. The weed population consisted mainly of annual winter and spring and some perennial weeds. Weediness comprised 116 and 208 plants m-2 in 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, in the Skopje region, and 93 and 114 plants m-2 in 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, in the Probištip region. All POST herbicides effectively reduced dominant weeds density (> 93%) in the Skopje region in both years, as well as in the Probištip region in 2012–2013, but not in 2013–2014. In this year, lower temperature directly following application decreased efficacy of POST applied herbicides, which provided control of Lolium perenne that was between 76 and 84%; control of A. ludoviciana was less than 85%; control of B. radians was no more than 83% and no one treatment controlled P. convolvulus more than 82%. Wheat yields in the Skopje region were not significant among years for the different POST herbicide applications and ranged between 3,580 and 3,720 kg ha-1 in 2012–2013, and between 3,760 and 3,910 kg ha-1 in 2013–2014. A significant treatment by year interaction resulted in two distinct years for wheat yields in the Probištip region with POST herbicides. In 2012–2013, wheat yields were between 3,230 and 3,390 kg ha-1, but in 2013–2014, wheat yields ranged from 3,060 to 3,490 kg ha-1 and weed-free control showed a significant higher wheat yield compared to all evaluated herbicides.

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162-168 A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė
Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions
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Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions

A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period of 2005–2007 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture to test the efficacy of harrowing on weeds at different growth stages of ecologically grown winter wheat and spring barley. The main weeds in winter wheat were: Lamium sp., Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and in spring barley Ch.album, Sinapis arvensis, Stellaria media, T. inodorum. The weeds most vulnerable to harrowing in winter wheat were: Veronica sp., Chenopodium album and Capsella bursa pastoris. Chenopodium album and Sinapis arvensis were vulnerable to harrowing in spring barley. Early harrowing pre-emergence followed with harrowing at the 3–4 leave stage of spring barley was the most optimal.Winter wheat grain yield reduction tendencies were obtained in plots harrowed threetimes. No statistical difference in spring barley grain yield was found among the treatments. The decrease in weed number and mass depended on harrowing timing and frequency, meteorological conditions and weed species composition.

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239-244 I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite
Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands
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Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands

I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr.,LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, zkadziul@lzi.lt, lina@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weeds were investigated in the stands of field pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) grown as pure and as mixtures at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Results revealed that annuals dominated in the weed flora composition (7–19 species) while perennials were more recessive (2–11 weed species). The total weed number was higher by 1.3–1.6 fold in the peas stand compared to the weed number in peas-cereals stands. In barley, wheat, oat and triticale stands the number of weeds was significantly lower than that for peas. Cereals and their mixtures with peas had the best suppressing ability compared to peas investigated. The dry mass of weeds in the peas stand was essentially higher than in the other stands of crops. The effect of pea mixtures with cereals crops on weed mass was similar as compared to that of pure cereals crops.

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457-464 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckienė and V. Pilipavičius
Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under intensive and conservation soil tillage: I. Crop weediness
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Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under intensive and conservation soil tillage: I. Crop weediness

K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckienė and V. Pilipavičius

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 33, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of non-chemical weed control under different soil tillage on sugar beet crop weediness was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2004–2005. The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of soil tillage intensity, living and straw mulch on the number and dry mass of weeds in the sugar beet crop. Treatments of the trial were the following: I. Soil tillage (factor A): 1. intensive (straw loosening, moldboard ploughing; control variant) (IT); 2. conservation (straw loosening) (CT); II. Non-chemical weed control (factor B): 1. hand weeding, twice (control variant) (HW); 2. spring barley living mulch (SBM); 3. annual ryegrass living mulch (ARM); 4. white mustard living mulch (WMM); 5. spring oilseed rape living mulch (SRM); 6. winter wheat straw mulch (WSM).According to the results of investigations, in conditions of intensive soil tillage the highestchoking of weeds was observed by annual ryegrass (ARM) and white mustard (WMM) living mulches. In sugar beet row spaces, which were mulched with winter wheat straw mulch (WSM) there was a large number of weeds but their mass was not high. Conversely, in conservation soil tillage conditions the lowest weed infestation and dry mass of weeds were observed in straw mulch (WSM) up to 4 cm. White mustard living mulch (WMM) also influenced weed dry mass decrease though its number was high.

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522-527 I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver
Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation
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Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation

I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva, Estoniae-mail: ilmar.tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to compare grain yield and quality characteristics of spring wheat, barley and oat in organic and conventional conditions. Thirteen varieties of each cereal crop were tested during the four trial years (2005–2008). By the results turned out that all the spring crops were able to produce comparatively high yields in organic conditions after a suitable precrop. Oat as the most unpretentious crop was the highest yielding in organic trial and had the best weeds suppressing ability among the spring cereals. The most widely spread weeds were (Chenopodium album) and (Viola arvensis). Among the quality traits protein content was the most influenced by the management regime having evident decrease in organic conditions. A yield gap between organic and conventional production depended on crop, precrop and growing conditions.

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73-86 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckiene, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius and A. Sakalauskas
The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation
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The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation

K. Romaneckas¹, R. Romaneckiene¹, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius¹ and A. Sakalauskas

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail:
kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of different conservation primary soil tillage on sugar beet was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2001 – 2006. The aim of the trial was to establish the influence of reduced soil tillage intensity on some soil physical properties, sugar beet yield and quality, and weed infestation. Treatments of the trial: 1. conventional (22–25 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (CP); 2. shallow (12–15 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (SP); 3.deep (25–30 cm) cultivation with a chisel cultivator (DC); 4. shallow (10–12 cm) loosening with a disc harrow (SL); 5. zero tillage (ZT). Reduction of primary soil tillage intensity increased the amount of moisture and level of soil bulk density in the soil upper layer (0-10 cm). According to the average data of 2001-2006, the highest amounts of moisture and soil bulk density were observed in no tilled soil (ZT) before pre-sowing soil tillage (25.8% and 1.40 Mg m-3) and after sowing until sugar beet germination (23.6% and 1.40 Mg m-3). Soil tillage intensity had no significant influence on soil moisture content and bulk density in a deeper (10-20 cm) layer. Sugar beet seed germination in shallow loosened soil (SL) was higher in comparison with control treatment (CP) fourfold per 6 years; this influence was significant in two experimental years. Average data showed that germination of directly sowed seeds was less by 37% in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Reducing of soil tillage intensity to zero tillage had no significant influence on sugar beet yield, ramification and sucrose content of root-crop. The reduction of soil tillage intensity and refusal to use full-scale herbicides had negative, but not significant influence on weed infestation in the sugar beet crop, except in the no-tillage pattern. The data of the beginning of the second rotation showed a significantly higher number of annual (32%) and all (29%) weeds in no-tilled (ZT) soil in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Generally, the number of weed species increased from 22 to 26. The number of Chenopodium album increased from 11.3 to 22.1, Poa annua – from 5.6 to 14.2, Taraxacum officinalis – from 0.66 to 6.1 plants per m2 . Elytrigia repens became a widespread weed.

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129-132 O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis
Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on weeds and maize
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Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on weeds and maize

O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1 Akademija, LT-58344 - Kedainiai distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ona@lzi.lt, albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Three field experiments, designed to test the new sulfonylurea group herbicides, were conducted in maize crops during 2002–2003 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Central Lithuania.The weed species differed between fields. The most frequent weed species in maize standswere Elytrigia repens, and Chenopodium album. The efficacy of tested herbicides against Chenopodium album, Echinocloa crus – galli differed in relation to active ingredients. Rimsulfuron-methyl and nicosulfuron-methyl were effective against Echinochloa crus – galli; primisulfuron-methyl did not have any effect on this weed species. Nicosulfuron – methyl and primisulfuron-methyl were effective against Chenopodium album, however, rimisulfuron methyl did not control that weed as effectively.The green matter yield of maize in treated plots was 1–18.4 t ha-1 higher than in theuntreated.

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