Tag Archives: wheat

xxx Z. Pacanoski and A. Mehmeti
Pre-emergence grass weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with soil applied premixed herbicides influenced by precipitations
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Pre-emergence grass weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with soil applied premixed herbicides influenced by precipitations

Z. Pacanoski¹ and A. Mehmeti²*

¹Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
²University of Prishtina, Department of Plant Protection, Bill Clinton p.n., XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Corresponding address: arben.mehmeti@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

The field trials were conducted during two winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively) to estimate weed control, and influence of herbicides on grain yield with PRE premixes in winter wheat crops. The field trials were conducted with ‘Ingenio’ and ‘Pobeda’ winter wheat cultivars which were sowed in a well-prepared soil seedbed at a seeding rate of 220 and 240 kg ha-1. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four replicates and elementary plots 25 m2. The efficacy of PRE herbicides varied with treatments among weed species and periods of efficacy estimation, regions and years, respectively. Overall, the performance of the PRE herbicide premixes correlated with the weather conditions. All PRE herbicide premixes effectively reduced the dominant weed species Milium vernale, Papaver rhoeas, and Galium aparine in the Bitola region in 2013–2014, but not in 2014–2015 due to heavy rain during the first two weeks of herbicide application. In contrast, the limited precipitation after PRE application may have contributed to the poor performance of PRE herbicides in the Probištip region in 2013 compared with 2014. In the Bitola region, the lowest crop yield was obtained in plots treated with diflufenican + isoproturon (2,960 kg ha-1) in both growing seasons. In the Probištip region, the wheat grain yields in 2013–2014 following all PRE applied herbicides were significantly lower (between 520 and 800 kg ha-1) than weed-free control. In 2014–2015, diflufenican + isoproturon herbicide treatment produced the lowest yield of 2,530 kg ha-1, whereas chlortoluron + triasulfuronwas the highest-yielding herbicide treatment (2,820 kg ha-1). However, results indicated that in Bitola region comparatively higher yield were found in plots treated with chlortoluron + triasulfuron (3,450 kg ha-1), in both growing seasons, also in Probistip region herbicide chlortoluron + triasulfuron achieved higher yield (2,820 kg ha-1), in both growing seasons).

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822–832 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Effect of nitrogen fertilization management on mineral nitrogen content in soil and winter wheat productivity
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization management on mineral nitrogen content in soil and winter wheat productivity

I. Skudra¹ and A. Ruza²

¹Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, Street Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
²Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Street Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
E-mail: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv; antons.ruza@llu.lv

Abstract:

In recent years farmers must use integrated crop growing principles. One of the most important principle is to balance usage of mineral elements in crop cultivation, especially nitrogen management. Excessive and unbalanced usage of nitrogen fertilizer reduces nitrogen use efficiency and increases nitrate leaching in surface and groundwater. The dynamics of nitrogen forms in soil at different depths and different plant growth stages are studied to increase the productivity of winter wheat, promoting nitrogen uptake in plants and reducing nitrogen leaching during the vegetation period. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies from 2012 till 2015. Researched factors were nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate: 0 – control, 85, 153, 187, and N rate determined by chlorophylmeter (Yara N-tester) 180 (2012/2013), 150 (2013/2014), 205 (2014/2015) N kg ha-1, nitrogen and sulphur (S) fertilizer rate – N175+S21 kg ha-1, and conditions of the growing seasons: 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. The content of nitrate (NO3–N) nitrogen and ammonium (NH4–N) nitrogen was determined in the soil layers 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm at the growth stages (GS) 30–32, 49–51, 69 and 90–92. All trial years the amount of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in soil decreased during vegetation, but increased with increasing fertilization dose. Nitrate nitrogen content was significantly influenced by year in 0–40 cm soil layer (P < 0.01) and by nitrogen fertilizer in the 20–40 cm soil layer. Ammonium nitrogen content had significant influence only on nitrogen fertilizer at 20–40 cm soil layer (P < 0.05). Average grain yields did not show significant correlation with the nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in different soil layers and plant growth stages, except nitrate nitrogen content in soil layer 40–60 cm at GS 30–32 and ammonium nitrogen content in soil layer 40–60 cm at GS 69 and GS 90–92.

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1796-1808 Z. Pacanoski and A. Mehmeti
POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Z. Pacanoski¹ and A. Mehmeti²*

¹University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty for Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
²University of Prishtina, Department of Plant Protection, Bill Clinton p.n., XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: arben.mehmeti@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during two winter wheat-growing seasons to evaluate the efficacy of some new POST herbicides and herbicide combinations for those effective controls of weeds in winter wheat crops in the Republic of Macedonia. The weed population consisted mainly of annual winter and spring and some perennial weeds. Weediness comprised 116 and 208 plants m-2 in 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, in the Skopje region, and 93 and 114 plants m-2 in 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, in the Probištip region. All POST herbicides effectively reduced dominant weeds density (> 93%) in the Skopje region in both years, as well as in the Probištip region in 2012–2013, but not in 2013–2014. In this year, lower temperature directly following application decreased efficacy of POST applied herbicides, which provided control of Lolium perenne that was between 76 and 84%; control of A. ludoviciana was less than 85%; control of B. radians was no more than 83% and no one treatment controlled P. convolvulus more than 82%. Wheat yields in the Skopje region were not significant among years for the different POST herbicide applications and ranged between 3,580 and 3,720 kg ha-1 in 2012–2013, and between 3,760 and 3,910 kg ha-1 in 2013–2014. A significant treatment by year interaction resulted in two distinct years for wheat yields in the Probištip region with POST herbicides. In 2012–2013, wheat yields were between 3,230 and 3,390 kg ha-1, but in 2013–2014, wheat yields ranged from 3,060 to 3,490 kg ha-1 and weed-free control showed a significant higher wheat yield compared to all evaluated herbicides.

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286-296 H.R. Tohidi Moghadam, T. W. Donath, F. Ghooshchi and M. Sohrabi
Investigating the probable consequences of super absorbent polymer and mycorrhizal fungi to reduce detrimental effects of lead on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Investigating the probable consequences of super absorbent polymer and mycorrhizal fungi to reduce detrimental effects of lead on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

H.R. Tohidi Moghadam¹, T. W. Donath², F. Ghooshchi¹ and M. Sohrabi²*

¹Department of Agronomy, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran
²Department of Landscape Ecology, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Kiel University, Olshausenstr. 75, DE24118 Kiel, Germany
*Correspondence: msohrabi@ecology.uni-kiel.de

Abstract:

In many parts of the world, agricultural use of soils is restricted due to heavy metal contamination. Absorption of heavy metals, such as (Pb), in the tissue of plants increases the plant’s metabolism and causes physiological disorders or even death. In order to study the potential of super absorbent polymers (SAP) and mycorrhiza fungi application to mitigate adverse effects of lead (Pb) on wheat, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The experiment was setup as a completely randomized design, with two treatments arranged in a factorial scheme with three levels of lead (0, 100 and 200 mg per kg soil) and four levels of SAP and mycorrhiza fungi application (without SAP and mycorrhiza fungi application, SAP application alone, mycorrhiza fungi application alone, SAP and mycorrhiza fungi application combined). The results showed that Pb significantly affected all parameters measured of wheat. The Pb-contamination caused a significantly decreasing in plant height, total dry weight per plant and total chlorophyll contents. And also, the results indicated that the combined use of superabsorbent and mycorrhiza reduced the amount of superoxide dismutase enzyme. As well as, our results show that the application of super absorbent polymer and mycorrhizal fungi seems to be a promising path to reduce detrimental effects of heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils on plant performance.

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443-450 R. Morcuende, P. Pérez, R. Martínez-Carrasco and E. Gutiérrez
Nitrogen Modulates the Diurnal Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Wheat Plants – Projections Towards Climate Change
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Nitrogen Modulates the Diurnal Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Wheat Plants – Projections Towards Climate Change

R. Morcuende, P. Pérez, R. Martínez-Carrasco and E. Gutiérrez

Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es

Abstract:

This study investigates whether the diurnal regulation of nitrate reductase activity in the flag leaf of wheat is affected by combined increases of CO2 and temperature in the air and to ascertain whether the nitrogen supply modifies these effects. Spring wheat was grown at ambient (360 μmol mol−1) or elevated (700 μmol mol−1) CO2, under ambient and 4°C warmer temperatures, and with two levels of nitrogen supply in field temperature gradient chambers. At ear emergence, NR activity reaches a maximum in the early part of the light period and declines later in the light period and during the first part of the night. Although elevated CO2 did not increase NR activity, it led to a modification of the diurnal regulation. During the last part of the photoperiod the decline of the activity was faster in plants grown in ambient CO2, in which the accumulation of amino acids was higher. The maximum reached in the first hours of the light period in plants grown in elevated CO2 and nitrogen abundance was related to a higher accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. The dark inactivation of NR was prevented in plants grown in elevated CO2 with low nitrogen. Additionally, the higher decline of NR activation in plants grown with ample nitrogen supply and higher temperatures was related to the accumulation of amino acids. It is concluded that nitrogen plays a role in the activity and post-translational regulation of NR under the future climatic scenario.

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343-356 J. Pozdíšek, B. Henriksen, A. Ponížil and A.-K. Løes
Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals
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Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals

J. Pozdíšek¹, B. Henriksen², A. Ponížil³ and A.-K. Løes²

¹Research Institute of Cattle Breeding, Rapotín s.r.o, Výzkumníků 267, 788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic; e-mail:jan.pozdisek@vuchs.cz
²Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division, Gunnars veg 6, NO-6630 Tingvoll, Norway; e-mail: britt.henriksen@bioforsk.no and anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no
³Agritec, research, breeding and services Ltd., Zemědělská 16, 787 01 Šumperk, Czech Republic; e-mail: ponizil@agritec.cz

Abstract:

In 2009, controlled field trials were conducted on three certified organic farms with field pea (leaf type), spring barley and spring wheat in monocultures and mixtures (pea:cereal ratio 60:40) to study the possibility of producing fodder for monogastric animals under Czech conditions. By grain harvest time, seed samples were collected and analysed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, fat and crude fiber, and content of organic matter and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were determined. Weed harrowing at various pea heights were included at one farm. Samples for analysis of tannins and trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) were taken from treatments with no weed harrowing (H0) and harrowings at 5 and 10 cm pea height (H2). Analyses of amino acids were conducted from H0-samples. To complement the data from the farm trials, samples of grains from treatments with the same pea and cereal varieties in plot trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 studying the effect of pea:cereal seed ratio and weed harrowing at various pea heights, were analysed. In cereals, the crude protein content increased by intercropping with pea. This increase was compensated for by a decrease in NFE. Wheat and barley grown in mixtures with peas seemed to contain more methionine than cereals in monoculture, and there tends to be higher threonine content in intercropped barley compared with barley monoculture. This is positive for the nutrition of monogastric animals.  There were no pronounced effects of intercropping on tannins or TIA or on the content of other analysed nutrients in the cereals. The chemical composition of peas was not significantly impacted by intercropping.

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263-271 E. Stanislawska-Glubiak and J. Korzeniowska
Yield of Winter Wheat Grown under Zero and Conventional Tillage on Different Soil Types
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Yield of Winter Wheat Grown under Zero and Conventional Tillage on Different Soil Types

E. Stanislawska-Glubiak and J. Korzeniowska

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: e.glubiak@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

In three-year field trials, conducted in West Poland, the growth and development of winter wheat grown under zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) methods on four soils were investigated. The soils were different mainly in grain fraction distribution and content of organic matter. The tested soils were sandy loam (SL), loamy sand (LS-1, LS-2) and sand (S). In GPS-fixed sites, in ZT and CT fields, yield of aerial part biomass in four growth stages: stem elongation, second node, and heading and inflorescence phases, was compared. In addition, yields of grain and straw were tested. On medium and coarse textured soils (SL, LS-1, LS-2), more biomass was produced by wheat under CT than ZT, but on very coarse textured soil (S), the biomass yields obtained from wheat growing under both soil tillage methods were identical. On medium textured soils and on coarse textured (LS-1) soil, wheat under CT contained more N and P as well as much more Ca and Mg in tissues than under ZT. In contrast, on the other coarse textured (LS-2) soil and on very coarse textured soil, wheat plants under ZT were generally characterized by identical or slightly higher nutrient content than plants under CT. Despite periodic fluctuations in biomass yields between ZT and CT for particular growth stages of wheat, the yields of grain and straw were the same for both soil tillage methods, irrespective of the soil type.

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545-552 D. Grauda, N. Lepse, V. Strazdiņa, I. Kokina, L. Lapiņa, A. Miķelsone, L.Ļubinskis and I. Rashal
Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding
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Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding

D. Grauda¹, N. Lepse¹, V. Strazdiņa², I. Kokina³, L. Lapiņa¹, A. Miķelsone¹, L.Ļubinskis¹ and I. Rashal¹

¹Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia;e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv; izaks@email.lubi.edu.lv
²State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, p/o Dižstende, Talsi region, LV-3258, Latvia;e-mail: vijastrazdina@inbox.lv
³Institute of Systematic Biology, Daugavpils University, Vienības 13, Daugavpils, LV-5401,Latvia; e-mail: inese.kokina@biology.lv

Abstract:

Methods of modern biotechnology, like double haploids (DH), could highly contribute improving efficiency and speeding up the breeding process. Aim of the present work was to elaborate most effective protocol of obtaining DH lines by spring and winter wheat anther culture. As initial material 10 spring and 4 winter wheat F2 hybrids were used. The cold (4ºC) pre-treatment of spikes was applied, and spikes were sterilized by 50% solution of bleach for 17 min. Isolated anthers were cultivated on the different induction media: 190-0, AMC, and AMC with addition of 2.5 mg l-1 CuSO4 x 5H2O. The most suitable induction medium for obtaining DHs from used wheat hybrids was the AMC medium with copper. Produced DH lines were multiplied and tested in the field conditions.

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684-690 A. Nykänen, L. Jauhiainen and M. Rinne
Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages
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Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages

A. Nykänen¹, L. Jauhiainen² and M. Rinne³

¹ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Lönnrotinkatu 3, FIN-50100Mikkeli, Finland; e-mail: arja.nykanen@mtt.fi
² MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Method Services, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
³ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland

Abstract:

In eastern Finland, 12 mixtures of spring wheat, spring barley, spring oats and/or rye with vetches and/or peas  were evaluated in  field experiments from 2005 to 2007 for their dry matter (DM) production, crude protein (CP) concentration and digestibility using three different harvesting  times.  Spring  wheat-pea  and  spring  wheat-vetch-rye  mixtures  produced  the  highest DM  yields  (5,000–6,000  kg  ha-1)  while  the  lowest  yields  were  found  with  spring  oats-vetch (4,000 kg ha-1 DM). The highest CP concentrations were found in vetches (200 g kg-1 DM) and lowest in  spring cereals (90–120 g kg-1  DM). Organic  matter digestibility  was  highest in peas (700–750  g  kg-1)  and  lowest  in  spring  rye  and  wheat  (550–610  g  kg-1).  It  is  suggested  that decisions concerning when to harvest legume-cereal mixtures for forage could be based on the maturity stage of the cereal, because changes in digestibility and CP concentration are slow in legumes during the potential harvesting period.  Key words: barley, dry matter yield, forage digestibility, oats, pea, rye, vetch, wheatINTRODUCTION

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363-366 R. Semaškienė, A. Mankevičienė, Z. Dabkevičius and S. Supronienė
Effect of fungicides on Fusarium infection and production of deoxynivalenol in spring cereals
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Effect of fungicides on Fusarium infection and production of deoxynivalenol in spring cereals

R. Semaškienė, A. Mankevičienė, Z. Dabkevičius and S. Supronienė

Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Instituto 1, LT 58344 Akademija, Kedainiu distr., Lithuania; e-mail: roma@lzi.lt, audre@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials in spring wheat and spring barley were carried out over two years in Dotnuva, in the center of Lithuania. Different fungicidal spray programs were used in 2004-2005 to determine their efficacy in controlling Fusarium infection and toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in the grain. Azoxystrobin alone, and in a tank mixture with tebucanozole, a commercial mixture of prothioconazole and tebuconazole were used in spring barley. Epoxiconazole commercial mixture with pyraclostrobin and fenpropimorph, and tebuconazole alone were used in spring wheat. Fungicides were used at booting and heading or flowering stages. Naturally contaminated freshly harvested grain was analyzed. The Fusarium fungi infection level in grain was very high in both experimental years: in 2004 the level was 38.5–50.0%, and in 2005,45.0–70.8%. A lower percent of infected grains was found in spring wheat compared with spring barley. During 2004 there was identified 16.8–28.3% infection level; in 2005, 28.3–49.3%. Only in 2005 did fungicide treatments at heading or flowering slightly reduce the Fusarium infection. The level of mycotoxin DON detected in the grain samples was generally low and varied from 21 to 168 µg kg-1.

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