Tag Archives: winter wheat

2103-2116 М.І. Kulyk, А.О. Rozhkov, О.V. Kalinichenko, А.О. Taranenko and О.V. Onopriienko
Effect of winter wheat variety, hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) on protein content, grain and protein yield
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Effect of winter wheat variety, hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) on protein content, grain and protein yield

М.І. Kulyk¹, А.О. Rozhkov², О.V. Kalinichenko¹, А.О. Taranenko¹* and О.V. Onopriienko¹

¹Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agrotechnology and ecology, 1/3 Skovorody street UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
²Kharkiv National Agrarian University. V. V. Dokuchaev, Agronomy Department, p/v Dokuchaevske – 2, UA62483 Kharkiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: anna.taranenko@pdaa.edu.ua

Abstract:

The aim of the research is to clarify the physiological and biochemical processes in the plant organism that occur in the optimal and stressful conditions, as well as to search for anthropogenic methods of their manifestation in connection with the protein content in grain of wheat varieties of different origin in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe Ukraine. The impact of temperature factor and the moistening mode of the period of winter wheat seed formation and ripening (Triticum aestivum L.) has been studied. The impact of varieties of Ukrainian and foreign plant breeding on the protein content in grain of the obtained offspring (reproduction yield) has been studied too. The ways to eliminate the influence of weather conditions on the protein content in grain and on the bases of sowing of different seed fractions have been searched. Research methods: field (studying the influence of growing conditions on grain quality), laboratory (determination of protein content), correlation-regression (establishing connection between factors), statistical method (to confirm the difference between variants). According to the results of the first stage of research, the dependence has been established: sowing with seed, grown in the arid conditions, allows obtaining offspring with high protein content, and vice versa. This is confirmed by the strong correlation both for winter wheat variety. At the second stage of research it has been determined that sowing with fine seed raises the yield protein content in grain, and protein yield without additional costs, but using seed, formed in the arid conditions.

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2049-2059 Z. Jelínek, K. Starý, J. Kumhálová, J. Lukáš and J. Mašek
Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy crop growth evaluation with the help of remote and proximal sensing measurements
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Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy crop growth evaluation with the help of remote and proximal sensing measurements

Z. Jelínek¹*, K. Starý¹, J. Kumhálová¹, J. Lukáš² and J. Mašek³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jelinekzdenek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Monitoring of agricultural crops with the help of remote and proximal sensors during the growing season plays important role for site-specific management decisions. Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy are representatives of typical agricultural crops from the family Poacea, Brassicaceae and Papaveraceae, growing in relative dry area of Rakovník district in the Czech Republic. Ten Sentinel 2 satellite images acquired during vegetation season of the crops were downloaded and processed. Crops were monitored with the help of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with consumer grade Red Green Blue (RGB) camera and multispectral (MS) MicaSense RedEdge MX camera. In-field variability was assessed by computing RGB-based vegetation indices Triangular Greenness Index (TGI), Green Leaf Index (GLI) and Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) and commonly used vegetation indices as Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Green NDVI (GNDVI). The results derived from satellite and UAV images were supported with in-situ measurements of hand-held GreenSeeker and Chlorophyll Meter Content sensors. The study showed the usability of individual vegetation indices, especially the TGI index for chlorophyll content estimation, and VARI index for green vegetation fraction detection and leaf area index estimation, in comparison with selected hand-held devices. The results showed as well that leaf properties and canopy structure of typical characteristics of selected families can significantly influence the spectral response of the crops detected in different phenological stages.

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163–176 I.Yu. Kuznetsov, R.R. Alimgafarov, B.G. Akhiyarov, F.F. Safin and A.R. Nafikova
Effect of different pesticides combined with Melafen on grain yield and quality of winter wheat
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Effect of different pesticides combined with Melafen on grain yield and quality of winter wheat

I.Yu. Kuznetsov*, R.R. Alimgafarov, B.G. Akhiyarov, F.F. Safin and A.R. Nafikova

University Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education “Bashkir state agrarian university”, Department of plant growing, plant breeding and biotechnology, 50 anniversary of October St., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
*Correspondence: kuznetsov_i1@rambler.ru

Abstract:

The use and search for new pesticides ensuring high and stable yields is one of the topical issues in winter wheat growing. The aim of the study was to develop theoretical foundations and farming practices for highly productive winter wheat through the use of pesticides of different groups in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. An experiment (2016–2019) with 4 main blocks was conducted to determine the optimal combination of pesticides in cultivation of winter wheat. The pesticides were used at the tillering ((ZGS) 25) and heading stages ((ZGS) 59) of wheat growth. The experiment was replicated 4 times. The study results show that pesticides used to treat winter wheat increased grain yield and improved grain quality characteristics. The best results were reached in the block where treatment included Melafen plant growth promoter combined with the insecticide, herbicide and fungicide at different stages of winter wheat growth. The pesticides used in the experiment confirmed their efficiency. On the whole, the block of variants that used seed treatment produced a yield of 3.33–6.37 t ha-1. The new plant growth promoter Melafen worked well in the experiments on winter wheat, especially in combination with pesticides in different variations. It produced the highest grain yield (6.36–7.41 t ha-1). All experiment variants demonstrated positive economic efficiency. The study results may be useful in developing winter wheat cultivation practices aimed at increasing yields and improving grain quality.

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2350–2358 G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage
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Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Tillage technologies that promote resource-saving and increase in the yield of agricultural crops are being increasingly involved into the agriculture of arid territories of Russian Federation. Studies of the impact of new tillage on soil quality and yield in Russian Federation are necessary owing to the high soils and climate diversity. Yield enhancement of major crops – winter wheat and sunflower – have been observed in Russian Federation in recent years. During 2014–2019 in the south of the European part of Russian Federation (Rostov region), the effect of No-Till (NT) on soil quality and yield of field crops was studied. The studies were carried out over an area of 5,500 hectares in comparison with adjacent fields, where conventional tillage (CT) of soils with mould board plowing was used. The yield of sunflower and winter wheat depended significantly on the amount of precipitation during the growing season. In 2014–2017 the use of No-Till increased the yield of winter wheat by 26–114%, of sunflower – by 27–92% as compared with farms, where the conventional tillage of soil treatment was used. No-Till helped to save motor fuel, increase yields of agricultural crops and lower the cost of winter wheat and sunflower.

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582–592 L. Litke, Z. Gaile and A. Ruža
Effect of nitrogen rate and forecrop on nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)
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Effect of nitrogen rate and forecrop on nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)

L. Litke*, Z. Gaile and A. Ruža

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences
2 Liela street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.litke@llu.lv

Abstract:

Application of plant nutrient is one of the most important measures increasing grain yield and yield quality. Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to nitrogen leaching and it affects the quality of groundwater and surface water. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rate on nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat after two forecrops. The experiment was conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (56° 30.658’ N and 23° 41.580’ E) in four growing seasons: 2014/2015, 2015/2016, 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. Researched factors were crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera/wheat) and five nitrogen fertilizer rates (kg ha-1): N0 or control, N60, N120(90+30), N180(90+60+30) and N240(120+60+60). Nitrogen fertilizer affected winter wheat grain yield significantly (P < 0.001) and average grain yield increased significantly (P < 0.049) until nitrogen rate N180. But analyzing it after each forecrop separately, yield increased significantly (P < 0.05) until N120 after both forecrops. Nitrogen fertilizer affected nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE), nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) and protein content significantly (P < 0.001). When increasing nitrogen fertilizer rate NUE, NUpE and NUtE decreased, and higher results were observed at the lowest nitrogen rates. Increased nitrogen fertilizer rate also increased crude protein content in grain, and for bread baking suitable grain was obtained only with the highest N rate: N 240. Forecrop did not affect winter wheat grain yield, however, it affected NUtE (P < 0.01), NUE (P < 0.001) and nitrogen harvesting index (P < 0.001) significantly; higher results were observed when wheat was grown after wheat.

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784-793 K. Křížová, J. Haberle, M. Kroulík, J. Kumhálová and J. Lukáš
Assessment of soil electrical conductivity using remotely sensed thermal data
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Assessment of soil electrical conductivity using remotely sensed thermal data

K. Křížová¹²*, J. Haberle³, M. Kroulík¹, J. Kumhálová⁴ and J. Lukáš²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ 16106 Prague, Czech Republic
³Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Management Systems, Drnovská 507/73, CZ16106 Prague, Czech Republic
⁴Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: krizovak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Detection of heterogeneity (crop, soil, etc.) gained a lot of importance in the field of site-specific farming in recent years and became possible to be measured by different sensors. The thermal spectrum of electromagnetic radiation has a great potential today and experiments focused on describing a relation between canopy temperature and various vegetation characteristics are conducted. This paper was aimed to examine the relation between canopy temperature and electrical conductivity as one of staple soil characteristics. The related experiment was undertaken in Sojovice, Czech Republic, within an agricultural plot where winter wheat was grown in 2017 growing season. The examined plot was composed of three sub plots and 35 control points were selected within this area which the data were related to. A canopy was sensed by UAV (eBee carrying thermoMAP (FLIR TAU2) camera). Soil conductivity data were collected by terrestrial sampling using EM38-MK2 Ground Conductivity Meter in 1 m depth and 2 m sampling point distance. This dataset was later interpolated using the kriging method. The correlation analysis results showed a strong negative correlation between conductivity and thermal data (-0.82; p < 0.001). When comparing conductivity with NDVI representing the aboveground biomass, there was an opposite trend but also strong result (0.86; p < 0.001). Correlation coefficient of thermal data and NDVI comparison was -0.86; (p < 0.001). These preliminary results have a potential for further research in terms of soil characteristics studies.

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500-509 L. Litke Z. Gaile and A. Ruža
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality

L. Litke¹²* Z. Gaile¹ and A. Ruža¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Lielā iela 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm "Pēterlauki", Lielā iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.litke@llu.lv

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production costs and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56° 30.658’ N and 23° 41.580’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera)/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould-board ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N150(90+60), N180(90+60+30), N210(90+70+50), and N240(120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate (p < 0.001) and forecrop (p < 0.05). Three-year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators (p < 0.001). Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N-rate from N150 up to N210

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1460–1466 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer
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Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer

I. Skudra¹²* and A. Ruza¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, St. Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, St. Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv

Abstract:

Yield and quality of wheat grain depends on many factors such as environmental conditions, soil quality, genetic parameters and fertilization, especially nitrogen fertilizer which is one of the most important factor influencing quality parameters of winter wheat. Field experiments were done at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Agriculture during 2013 till 2015. The aim of our study was to determine effect of nitrogen fertilization and environmental conditions on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety ‘Kranich’ grain quality parameters. The investigated factors were six different nitrogen application norms (0 – control, 85, 153, 175+S21, 187 N kg ha-1) and differential nitrogen norm according to chlorophylmeter (Konica Minolta Ltd.) data 180 N kg ha-1 in 2013, 150 N kg ha-1 in 2014 and 205 N kg ha-1 in 2015. One more variant was added – 175 N kg ha-1 in 2015. During the study years the meteorological conditions were significantly different. Our trials results showed that protein content suitable for bread making was obtained in variants N175+S21, 180 and 187 in year 2013, in all N application forms in 2014, but in 2015 – in all applications except N0, N175+S21, N85. The meteorological conditions had factor influence (2) 46% on protein content, but fertilizer application – 35%. Strong significant relationship at the 0.01 probability level between protein content and gluten content (r = 0.99), sedimentation value (r = 0.97) and falling number (r = 0.74) was found.

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115-122 J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak
Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application
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Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application

J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: j.korzeniowska@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to verify whether new, intensive and commonly grown winter wheat cultivars in Poland differ significantly in Cu efficiency. Winter wheat is considered as one of the most sensitive agronomic species to Cu deficiency. Copper fertilization of wheat seems to be a necessity in our country due to common Cu deficiency in Polish soils.
In 2004-2006, three field experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station Osiny in Eastern Poland, where the response of five winter wheat cultivars to foliar copper application was tested. Copper was applied in the form of CuSO4·5H2O at a rate of 305 g ha-1 Cu. Fertilization was performed in spring during the full tillering stage of growth. Analysis of variance was used for statistical calculations. The means were compared using Tukey’s test.
It was demonstrated that the five cultivars responded differently to the Cu fertilization, with a medium content of this element in soil. A single Cu spray caused 5-9% increase in grain yield in three out of the five tested cultivars. The other two cultivars did not show any significant yield increase in response to copper application. Besides, all the cultivars accumulated different quantities of copper in plant tissues, such as shoots and grain. The field trials have proven that winter wheat cultivars are diverse in their nutritional demand for copper. The necessity of winter wheat fertilization with Cu depends not only on the concentration of this nutrient in soil, but also on the tolerance of a given wheat cultivar to copper deficiency.

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637-644 R. Koppel, A. Ingver
Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat
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Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat

R. Koppel, A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1. J. Aamisepa St., Jõgeva alevik, 48306; e-mail:
Reine.Koppel@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Baking quality of 11 winter wheat varieties was studied at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute during 5 years (2005–2009). Protein content, farinograph absorption, dough stability time and loaf volume were examined in this study. The varieties were divided into clusters according to the average value of quality characteristics and coefficient of variation. Ada, Tarso, Portal, Ramiro had high protein content. Bjorke, Portal, Tarso belonged to the cluster with the highest farinograph absorption. Ada had the highest value of dough stability every year. Ada, Ebi, Compliment, Gunbo, Ramiro, Širvinta 1 and Tarso had higher loaf volume. For all the wheat quality parameters the variety effect was statistically significant but had very small magnitude compared to year effect. For the milling and baking industry, it is desirable that quality traits should be maintained as stable as possible through all environments. Varieties that had lower Cultivar Superiority value usually had higher coefficient of variation. Protein content is commonly used as predictor of baking quality. The correlation existed between protein content and farinograph absorption. Farinograph absorption correlated also with dough stability. Loaf volume had correlation with protein content only in one year out of five.

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