Tag Archives: yield

103-123 I. Fedosiy, І. Bobos, O. Zavadska, O. Komar, O. Tonkha, M. Furdyha, S. Polishchuk, M. Arak and J. Olt
Research into properties of blue melilot and fenugreek cultivated using different sowing times
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Research into properties of blue melilot and fenugreek cultivated using different sowing times

I. Fedosiy¹, І. Bobos¹, O. Zavadska¹, O. Komar¹, O. Tonkha¹, M. Furdyha², S. Polishchuk³, M. Arak⁴ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS of Ukraine, 22 Chkalov Str., Nemishaeve Vlg, Borodyanka Dist., UA07853 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv Str., Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA08162, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Engineering, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of the research into the properties of blue melilot (Melilotus caeruleus (L.) Desr.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) with regard to the set of their economy-and-biology and biochemical indices in relation to the dates of their sowing. It has been established that the two species under consideration feature wide ranges of index variability depending on the sowing term and the weather conditions. The earliest ripening terms have been recorded for species in case of summer sowing dates (decade I of June), when short growing season lengths of 36–37 days were observed. At the same time, in terms of heavy plant herbage yield obtained from species in the green conveyor system, the early spring (decades II–III of April) and late spring (decade I of May) sowing terms are more suitable providing
a herbage yield of 5.7–6.9 t ha–1 in case of blue melilot and 7.3–9.3 t ha–1 for fenugreek, with a solids content of 12.4–28.4%, total sugars of 2.5–5.0% and vitamin C – 38.0–51.8 mg (100 g)-1. For the purpose of obtaining the spice named ‘Greek hay’ (foenum Graecum), a better choice is to cultivate fenugreek with early spring (decades II–III of April) and late spring (decade I of May) sowing times, as in this case a greater vegetation mass develops, resulting in a plant dry weight yield of 1.3–1.4 t ha–1. An increase in the total precipitation by 1 mm has contributed to the variation of the herbage yield within the range of 15.0 to 77.3 kg ha–1, dry matter yield – 0.693 to 25.9 kg ha–1. High seed yield has been noted in case of sowing the species in early spring (decades II–III of April), where the seed yield of blue melilot was equal to 0.4 t ha-1, fenugreek – 2.0 t ha‑1, their 1,000 seeds having a weight of 0.71 and 9.7 g, respectively.

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xxx V. Lykhochvor, Y. Olifir, R. Panasiuk and M. Tyrus
False flax (Сamelina sativa L.) and oil flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) – an important source of deficient omega-3 fatty acids
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False flax (Сamelina sativa L.) and oil flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) – an important source of deficient omega-3 fatty acids

V. Lykhochvor¹*, Y. Olifir², R. Panasiuk¹ and M. Tyrus¹

¹Lviv National Agrarian University, 1 Volodymyra Velykoho Str., UA80381 Dubliany, Lviv region, Ukraine
²Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region NAAS, 5 Hrushevskoho Str., UA81115, Obroshyne, Pustomyty district, Lviv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: lykhochvor@ukr.net

Abstract:

Spring false flax (Camelina sativa L.), oil flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), spring rape (Brassica napus oleifera annua Metzd.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), and blue mustard (Brassica juncea Czern) were studied in order to establish their yield, oil content and quality. It was found that the highest seed yield (2.82 t ha-1) was formed by spring rape. Yields were also high in spring false flax (2.68 t ha-1) and oil flax (2.34 t ha-1). It was found that the highest oil content was in oil flax (52.2%), blue mustard (45.8%) and false flax (45.0%). The highest oil yields were provided by spring rape, false flax and oil flax – 1.21–1.25 t ha-1. It was found that the most physiologically valuable are oil flax and false flax, which have a high content of
omega-3(ω-3) fatty acids. It is advisable to use it for therapeutic, prophylactic and dietary purposes. The cultivation of false flax and oil flax is economically feasible and provides an environmental effect due to the reduction of pesticides.

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1962-1969 T. Seregina , O. Chernikova, Yu. Mazhaysky and L. Ampleeva
The productivity of spring barley when using cobalt nanoparticles and liquid-phase biological product
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The productivity of spring barley when using cobalt nanoparticles and liquid-phase biological product

T. Seregina¹ , O. Chernikova¹*, Yu. Mazhaysky¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law and management of the Federal penal service of Russia, Sennaya street 1, RU390036 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, Kostychev street 1, RU390044 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of growth activators on the yield and quality of spring barley products. For the most complete disclosure of the potential yield of spring barley against the background of the application of minimal doses of organic fertilizers, cobalt nanoparticles were used, as well as a liquid-phase biological product (LPBP) in various combinations (NPСо, Compost, Compost + NPСо, Compost+ LPBP 1%, Compost+ LPBP 2%, Compost+ LPBP 1%+ NPСо, Compost+ LPBP 2%+ NPСо). The size of cobalt nanoparticles was 40–60 nm, the phase composition – Cо – 100%. A suspension of nanoparticles was obtained by dispersing with ultrasound in an aqueous solution in accordance with the requirements of the technical conditions. LPBP is a dark brown liquid with a specific odor, pH = 6.5–7.5, contains N, C, P, K, Ca, Mg, tryptophan, microorganisms. Cobalt nanopowder in solution contained 0.01 g per hectare seeding rate (20 mg l-1), LPBP concentration was 1% and 2%. Compost was used as an organic fertilizer; it consisted of 90% of cattle manure and 10% of poultry manure at a dose of 20 t ha-1. The seeds were soaked 30 minutes before sowing in double distilled water, in a suspension of nanoparticles and LPBP in accordance with the experimental options. The analysis of the results of the research has shown that the studied preparations have a stimulating effect, contribute to an increase in resistance to suboptimal weather conditions, an increase in productivity and product quality. It was noted that the best indicators were obtained with joint pre-sowing treatment of seed material by cobalt nanoparticles with 1% solution of a liquid-phase biological product. Thus, there was an activation of growth processes, the yield increased by 35%, the content of crude protein – by 20.9%, digestible protein – by 10.9%, and crude fat – by 78.8%.

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562–573 M. Mostipan, K. Vasylkovska, O. Andriienko, M. Kovalov and N. Umrykhin
Productivity of winter wheat in the northern Steppe of Ukraine depending on weather conditions in the early spring period
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Productivity of winter wheat in the northern Steppe of Ukraine depending on weather conditions in the early spring period

M. Mostipan¹, K. Vasylkovska¹*, O. Andriienko¹, M. Kovalov¹ and N. Umrykhin²

¹Central Ukrainian National Technical University (CUNTU), Department of General Agriculture, University Avenue, 8, UA25006 Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine
²Institute of Steppe Agriculture, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Street Central, 2, UA 27602 Sozonivka village, Kirovohrad region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: vasilkovskakv@ukr.net

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to develop scientific and methodological bases for adapting the technology of growing winter wheat depending on weather conditions in early spring. Winter wheat was grown at different sowing dates. It is established that the reserves of productive moisture in the soil at the time of renewal of spring vegetation are crucial for the formation of winter wheat harvest. After worse forecrop, the impact of moisture on productivity reaches 49.7–66.4%. The later the renewal of spring vegetation of winter wheat is, the lower the productivity of the crops. The shorter the period from the date of transition of the average daily air temperature above 0 °C to the beginning of active vegetation of plants is, the higher the productivity of winter wheat crops. Therefore, depending on weather conditions of early spring period and the time of renewal of spring vegetation of plants, it is necessary to adjust the technology of growing winter wheat during the spring-summer period.

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394–407 M. Havrilyuk, V. Fedorenko, O. Ulianych, I. Kucher, V. Yatsenko, N. Vorobiova and O. Lazariev
Effect of superabsorbent on soil moisture, productivity and some physiological and biochemical characteristics of basil
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Effect of superabsorbent on soil moisture, productivity and some physiological and biochemical characteristics of basil

M. Havrilyuk², V. Fedorenko³, O. Ulianych¹, I. Kucher¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, N. Vorobiova¹ and O. Lazariev¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Vegetable Growing, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vasylkivska street, 31/17, UA03022 Kyiv, Ukraine. 3Institute of Plant Protection National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Vasylkivska street, 33, UA03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Institute of Plant Protection National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Vasylkivska street, 33, UA03022 Kyiv, Ukraine *Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The study was carried out in 2019–2020, in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The results on the influence of absorbents in gel and powder forms on the productivity of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) are presented. For research were used field, laboratory, statistical and calculation-analytical methods. Absorbent in the form of a gel was used while transplanting: dip the roots of the plant in the solution and then transplant in the field. Absorbent in the form of a powder – 5 kg ha-1, application of the absorbent into the soil layer 20–25 cm-1. Absorbents contributed to a slight decrease of sugar content (-0.86–2.68% in the cultivar of Badioryi, -1.48–2.35% in the cultivar of Rutan), significantly decrease ascorbic acid (-8.6–20.1%) and content of the essential oil (8.0–19.4%) and indirectly increased essential oil yield by increasing fresh weight yield in both varieties. The activity of APX, CAT, SOD, tended to decrease in all variants of the experiment, regardless of the form of the absorbent. APX (-12.8–35.1%), CAT (-10.9–22.0%), SOD (-11.9–17.0%). Higher yields were observed in the version with the introduction of the absorbent in the form of a gel. Thus, the yield of the cultivars of Badioryi and Rutan exceeded the control by 52.67 and 50.05%, in accordance. The productivity of basil is increased with the use of superabsorbent polymers. This practice can be recommended to agricultural producers who grow vegetables, in particular, basil in areas of unstable or insufficient moisture.

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1124–1135 L. Prysiazhniuk, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk
The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions
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The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions

L. Prysiazhniuk*, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk

Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Henerala Rodimtseva 15, RU 0341 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: prysiazhniuk_l@ukr.net

Abstract:

The study of phenotypic plasticity and stability, according to which the potential of new spring canola varieties adaptability for agroecological technology of spring canola growing in the strategy of intensification of plant production is actual. The new canola varieties, which were included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine was studied. Field studies were carried out in 2018–2019 on the testing sites of the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination in Forest and Forest Steppe zones of Ukraine. The phenotypic plasticity and stability analysis for yield, 1,000 seeds weight, protein and oil content were carried out according to the Eberhart and Russell approach. As results of this study, it was determined that for yield Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. CEBRA CL and Lavina varieties are characterized stability of 1,000 seeds weight during studied years. According to the Wricke’s ecovalence deviation and standard deviation Lavina, Lakritz and CEBRA CL varieties consider as intensive type varieties for yield; for 1,000 seeds weight – Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties. According to standard deviation for protein and oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as highly adapted. Cleopatra, Lavina and Lakritz are stable for protein content. For oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. For protein content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are intensive. Thus, spring canola varieties, which are intensive for studied characteristics, respond positively to an improvement of growing conditions.

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721–738 R.C.B. Correia, F.C. Silva, M.M. Barros, A.C.L. Maria, D. Cecchin, L.A. Souza and D.F. Carmo
Productive efficiency and density and viscosity studies of biodiesels from vegetable oil mixtures
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Productive efficiency and density and viscosity studies of biodiesels from vegetable oil mixtures

R.C.B. Correia¹, F.C. Silva¹*, M.M. Barros², A.C.L. Maria¹, D. Cecchin¹, L.A. Souza¹ and D.F. Carmo¹

¹Federal Fluminense University, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department, 156 Rua Passos da Pátria 156, bloco D, sala 235, BR24210-240 Niterói, Brasil
²Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Engineering Department, Rodovia BR 465, Km 07, s/n Zona Rural, 23890-000, Seropédica, Brasil
*Correspondence: flaviocastro@id.uff.br

Abstract:

Currently in Brazil the minimum content of biodiesel in mixtures is 11% and, according to Brazilian laws, the goal is to reach 15% in volume in diesel fuel available for final consumers by 2023. Therefore, studies about different matrices of biodiesel and distinct mixtures are essential. The present work had two goals, the first one was to analyse physico-chemical properties of 16 biofuels produced from soybean and cotton oils, using S10 diesel, in mixtures B8, B10, B20 and B30. The second goal was to verify the vantages and disadvantages of biodiesel production through prior mixing of the oils, before and after the transesterification process. All biofuels produced presented results of specific mass values at 20 °C and kinematic viscosity at 40 °C within the limits established by ANP Resolution no 30/2016 and International Resolutions. The soybean B20 biofuel showed the best overall results, with the second highest production yield of 65.36%, the fifth lowest kinematic viscosity with 3.48 mm s-1. The mixture of soybean and cotton oils before the transesterification process presented the highest production yield when compared with the production from a single oil or biodiesel mixtures. The results found proved to be satisfactory and corroborate to continue with the increase of biodiesel in the mixture with diesel to B15 until 2023 and support the possibility of planning for a gradual increase of this mixture in the following years.

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147–170 Z. Magyar, P. Pepó and E. Gyimes
Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors
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Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors

Z. Magyar¹*, P. Pepó¹ and E. Gyimes²

¹University of Debrecen, Kerpely Kálmán Doctoral School, Böszörményi street 138, HU4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering, Mars square 7, HU6724, Szeged Hungary
*Corresponding author. magyarzoltan93@gmail.com

Abstract:

The present polyfactorial long-term experiment was conducted to determine the role of different agrotechnical factors, like fertilization, forecrop, year and cultivar on the quality and yield attributes of a classical and a modern winter wheat genotypes. The research gives a complex view of the alteration of the most quality parameters (32) that are rarely done together in a single experiment (n = 96). All the studied factors had a significant effect on some tested properties. First growing season with fair water supply was beneficial for yield (+21.7%) however, the 2nd one with mild weather in spring and average annual precipitation was favourable for quality parameters (HFN: +3%, GI: +19%, GS: -51%, DDT: +22.4%, ST: +24.6%, DS: -14%, PDR: +37.6%, PD: +6%, PMR: +51.5%, PE: +52.7%, W: +25.8%, LV: +16.3%, HI: +13.3%). The optimal fertilizer demand of the different parameters varied to realize the potential of the varieties (N90P68K80 for Y, VWA, PWA, PMR, PE, LV, Mavg, KW and HI; meanwhile N150P113K133 for CP, WGC, ZI, VQN, ST, W and P/L). In the case of suboptimal nutrient supply, the effect of fore crops was significant (Y, CP, DGC, ZI, FE, VQN, DDT, ST, DS, PDR, PMR, PE, Mavg and all alveographic values). Comparing the varieties, GK Öthalom had better fertilizer response attribute (NUECP) and quality parameters, till then Mv Ispán possessed significantly better natural nutrient utilizing property (+22.9%), NUEY and yield (+31.7% in 2019). Summarizing the results, there is a need to put great emphasis on the selection of adapted cultivar and variety-specific agrotechnology practices, also these data contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between the quality parameters.

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2770–2775 D. Siliņa and M. Liepniece
Variability in yield of the lowbush blueberry clones growing in modified soil
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Variability in yield of the lowbush blueberry clones growing in modified soil

D. Siliņa* and M. Liepniece

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia

Abstract:

In Latvia blueberry plantations are represented by approximately 486 ha in 2018, and about 44% of blueberry plantations are established in cutover peat bogs and approximately 40 ha of them are grown lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.). In Latvia, lowbush blueberries are not grown on modified mineral soil (peat on the top of mineral soil). Ten lowbush blueberry clone were sampled from a commercial field to estimate potential productivity. The experiment was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies. The plantation was established in peat (pH 3.8), which was covered in a layer of about 40 cm on mineral soil, rooted cuttings were planted in 2012, at a distance of 0.5×0.9 m, if necessary, the plantation was watered. The yield was estimated for a five year period, from 2015–2019. Significant differences in yield were found both by years and between clones. Over a five-year period, yields between clones ranged from 0.18 kg (2017) to 4.79 kg (2019) per bush. The high coefficient of variation (from 24.6 to 84.9%) indicate differences in yield between clones, with only 4 clones being below 30%. The average yield of clones by years was higher in 2019 (2.24 kg per bush), the lowest in 2017 (1.12 kg per bush). The results indicate variability on yield between the clones included in the experiment and year.

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2627-2638 O.V. Tryhub, А.V. Bahan, S.M. Shakaliy, Yu.M. Barat and S.О. Yurchenko
Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
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Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity

O.V. Tryhub¹, А.V. Bahan², S.M. Shakaliy³*, Yu.M. Barat² and S.О. Yurchenko²

¹Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd.a. V.Ya. Yuryev of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Ustymivka village, Hlobynskyi district, UA36003 Poltava region, Ukraine
²Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Science and Genetics, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Plant Production, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
*Correspondence: shakaliysveta@gmail.com

Abstract:

To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.

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