Tag Archives: yield

2770–2775 D. Siliņa and M. Liepniece
Variability in yield of the lowbush blueberry clones growing in modified soil
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Variability in yield of the lowbush blueberry clones growing in modified soil

D. Siliņa* and M. Liepniece

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia

Abstract:

In Latvia blueberry plantations are represented by approximately 486 ha in 2018, and about 44% of blueberry plantations are established in cutover peat bogs and approximately 40 ha of them are grown lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.). In Latvia, lowbush blueberries are not grown on modified mineral soil (peat on the top of mineral soil). Ten lowbush blueberry clone were sampled from a commercial field to estimate potential productivity. The experiment was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies. The plantation was established in peat (pH 3.8), which was covered in a layer of about 40 cm on mineral soil, rooted cuttings were planted in 2012, at a distance of 0.5×0.9 m, if necessary, the plantation was watered. The yield was estimated for a five year period, from 2015–2019. Significant differences in yield were found both by years and between clones. Over a five-year period, yields between clones ranged from 0.18 kg (2017) to 4.79 kg (2019) per bush. The high coefficient of variation (from 24.6 to 84.9%) indicate differences in yield between clones, with only 4 clones being below 30%. The average yield of clones by years was higher in 2019 (2.24 kg per bush), the lowest in 2017 (1.12 kg per bush). The results indicate variability on yield between the clones included in the experiment and year.

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2627-2638 O.V. Tryhub, А.V. Bahan, S.M. Shakaliy, Yu.M. Barat and S.О. Yurchenko
Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
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Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity

O.V. Tryhub¹, А.V. Bahan², S.M. Shakaliy³*, Yu.M. Barat² and S.О. Yurchenko²

¹Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd.a. V.Ya. Yuryev of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Ustymivka village, Hlobynskyi district, UA36003 Poltava region, Ukraine
²Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Science and Genetics, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Plant Production, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
*Correspondence: shakaliysveta@gmail.com

Abstract:

To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.

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2271-2284 O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, G. Podpryatov and J. Olt
Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids
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Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, G. Podpryatov¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv,Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results acquired from the study of eight carrot hybrids which are suitable for growing in the climatic zone of woodland steppes, while considering a set of economical and/or biological, biochemical, and organoleptic properties. The carrot hybrids that were studied have a wide range of variation in their economic value indicators, which makes it possible to grow them for storage and processing in various soils and climate conditions without irrigation. The most productive carrot hybrids are White Sabine F1 and Yellowstone F1 with a commercial yield of 55.8–58.7 t hа–1 and an average taproot weight of 118.7–136.2 g. The levels of preservation of the taproot of the hybrids White Sabine F1 and Purple Haze F1 after seven months of storage in conditions that involved the use of a stationary pit storage facility was at 81.4% and 80.2% respectively. The use of the taproots of the hybrids Yellowstone F1 and Viking F1 for drying ensures a yield of a high-quality, biologically-valuable finished product with a yield of 11.4–11.7%. Dry hybrid Evolyutsiya F1 and Mars F1 carrots contain more than 40 mg (100 g)–1 of β-carotene.

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2613-2626 N. Telekalo and M. Melnyk
Agroecological substantiation of Medicago sativa cultivation technology
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Agroecological substantiation of Medicago sativa cultivation technology

N. Telekalo* and M. Melnyk

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nataliiatelekalo@gmail.com

Abstract:

Medicago sativa is one of the most productive legumes, which provides high protein production. Application of the biostimulant and microfertilizers is quite relevant and effective. Theoretically substantiates and presents ways to solve the scientific problem of formation of Medicago sativa productivity and the impact on them of seed treatment and foliar nutrition, taking into account the conditions of the Forest-Steppe right bank of Ukraine. The research was conducted in the research field of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University in the village of Agronomichne, Vinnytsia district during 2016–2018. Sinyukha variety was sown (2010). There has been established that the use of pre-sowing treatment of seeds and crops of Medicago sativa with biostimulant and microfertilizer improves the conditions of growth and development of the crop and increases individual productivity. On the researches it is established that fodder productivity of Medicago sativa sowing is provided by application of biostimulators of growth and microfertilizers on crops, genetic potential the culture realized as much as possible on the 2nd year of cultivation. The effect of growth stimulants on Medicago sativa productivity was defined and the optimal combination of macro- and microelements in modern complex fertilizers was determined, which contributes to the maximum possible yield of Medicago sativa green mass. New technological regulations for the use of bioorganic preparations and components in the technological scheme of Medicago sativa cultivation have been developed. It was found that on average for three years of vegetation of Medicago sativa sown on gray forest soils in the Forest-Steppe Right Bank, the highest yield of seeds and green mass provides the option of treatment with biostimulator Saprogum® and microfertilizer Wuxal®. Creating optimal conditions for mineral nutrition for Medicago sativa plants through the use of bacterial fertilizers and foliar nutrition contributed not only to the formation of high grain yields, but also significantly improved biochemical parameters and, consequently, increased crude protein content in grain, which is important for solving the problem of vegetable protein and balancing the diets of farm animals. The research results are aimed at solving current problems of technological renewal and development of agro-industrial complex on the basis of development of bioorganic models of varietal technology of Medicago sativa cultivation with orientation at the level of adequate arable productivity and climate fertility.

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2060-2068 I. Kakabouki, A. Folina, S. Karydogianni, Ch. Zisi and A. Efthimiadou
The effect of nitrogen fertilization on root characteristics of Camelina sativa L. in greenhouse pots
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The effect of nitrogen fertilization on root characteristics of Camelina sativa L. in greenhouse pots

I. Kakabouki¹*, A. Folina¹, S. Karydogianni¹, Ch. Zisi¹ and A. Efthimiadou²

¹Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Agronomy, 75 Iera Odos Str., GR11855 Athens, Greece
²Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Department of Soil Science of Athens, Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Sofokli Venizelou 1, GR14123 Lycovrissi, Attica, Greece
*Correspondence: i.kakabouki@gmail.com

Abstract:

Climate change has made mandatory the introduction of new crops in Greece, such as the cultivation of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz]. Nitrogen (N) and the development of root system are two important factors affecting crop growth and yield. Camelina has been studied mainly for its composition and oil. In the present study, root development of camelina crop was thoroughly investigated; mainly in terms of Nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, a camelina greenhouse experiment was established in Western Greece, in the region of Agrinio, in March 2019 in completely randomized design with four treatments, (control 0 ppm N, 30 ppm N, 60, ppm N and 90 ppm N). The N rates had statistically significant affected root density and root surface from 40 to 120 days after treatment (DAT) with highest values at 100 DAT and 90 ppm N, 52.54 cm of root 100 cm-3 and 27.59 cm2 of root 100 cm-3, respectively. The root volume was significantly affected by N fertilizer from 40 to 100 DAT and highest value was 13.18 cm3 of root 100 cm-3 soil in the 90 ppm at 120 DAT. The plant leaf area was significantly affected by the highest rate of N. Yield per plant had not statistically significant difference with the 60 and with the 90 and highest weight per plant 292.25 g plant-1 in 90 ppm. In conclusion, Ν fertilization significantly affected growth or camelina’s root system after 40 DAT. Plant growth was significantly affected by fertilization and the highest yield and 1,000 seed weight were recorded with the highest amount of N.

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2245-2258 O. Ulianych, V. Yatsenko, P. Kondratenko, O. Lazariev, L. Voievoda, O. Lukianets and D. Adamenko
The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
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The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)

O. Ulianych¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, P. Kondratenko², O. Lazariev¹, L. Voievoda¹, O. Lukianets¹ and D. Adamenko¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Vegetable Growing, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²The National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Mykhayla Omelyanovycha-Pavlenka street, 9, UA01010 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The research was carried out in 2017–2019 in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. The results of study, the effect of spraying by certain amino acids; salicylic (300 ppm), gibberellin (150 ppm) and ascorbic acids (200 ppm) on garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants are presented in the article. It was found that amino acid solutions improves the antioxidant state: the activities of SOD, CAT, POD, GR, GST in treated leaves tended to increase, the activity of SOD was higher than the control of 7.5–15.0%; CAT (27.4–45.9%); POD (7.0–83.0%); GR (5.4–49.9%); and GST (14.8–41.3%). It was noted that the content of chlorophyll a+b in the leaves significantly increased (2.6–10.8%), The use of amino acids increased the accumulation of dry matter by 1.4–4.0%. The yield increase was 1.14–2.27 t ha-1 (7.7–15.3% compared to control). The content of B vitamins in the garlic cloves was greatly influenced by gibberellic acid, where increasing the amount of B vitamins reached to 21.9% relative to control The use of salicylic and ascorbic acids increased the amount of B vitamins by 7.6 and 8.2%, respectively. The most significant increasing of C vitamin content was observed by spraying of plants with ascorbic acid (+12.5%), whereas by spraying with salicylic and gibberellic acids its content increased by 6.0 and 7.5%, respectively. In the future, the data obtained can be used to reduce the impact of abiotic factors on the physiological state and productivity of garlic plants. Also, the obtained data will serve as a theoretical basis for producers in view of the purposes for which the products are grown (for sale in fresh form, processing or storage).

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483–493 L.G. Muhamedyarova, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova
Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
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Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain

L.G. Muhamedyarova*, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova

Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
*Correspondence: muhamedyarovaliliya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.

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472–482 I. Kuznetsov,, F. Davletov, N. Anokhina, I. Akhmadullina and F. Safin
Influence of weather condtion on the field peas (PisumsativumL.ssp. sativum) vegetation period and yield
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Influence of weather condtion on the field peas (PisumsativumL.ssp. sativum) vegetation period and yield

I. Kuznetsov¹,*, F. Davletov², N. Anokhina¹, I. Akhmadullina¹ and F. Safin¹

¹Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State Agrarian University”, Department ofPlant Growing, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 50 Anniversary of October Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
²Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State Agrarian University”, Laboratory of Biochemical Analysis and Biotechnology, 50 Anniversary of October Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia

Abstract:

Field pea (Pisumsativum L. ssp. sativum) is a universal pulse crop. One of the actual problems in its production is the influence of weather condition on the variability of pea economic characters and its properties. The purpose of the research (2009–2018) was to compare the vegetation period and interstage periods of the Hangildin and Chishminskiy 229 pea varieties with weather condition and seed yield. According to the results of the conducted research, it can be seen that the duration of the vegetation period and the yield of field pea grain was influenced by weather condition. The average daily air temperature affected the duration of the sowingsprouting period in pea varieties Hangildin and Chishminskiy 229. The duration of the two periods (sprouting-flowering and flowering-ripeness) was influenced by features of the used varieties and the temperature condition (r = -0.472, the link is significant and r = -0.788). The duration of the sprouting-ripeness period depended on the average daily temperatures (r = -0.481), the amount of precipitation (r = 0.937), and the HTC (hydrothermal coefficient) (r = 0.927). Precipitation increased the duration of the full vegetation period (r = 0.892). On average, over 10 years of research on field pea it should be noted that there wasa close relationship between the duration of its vegetation period (r = 0.844), the duration of the flowering-ripeness period (r = 0.679) and the yield of seeds. The relationship between the seed yield and the sowing – sprouting period (r = 0.451) and between the seed yield and the sprouting – flowering period (r = 0.446) was revealed. The connection was found positive. The connection with the average daily air temperature of this period was negative (r = -0.213). The results of the research can be successfully used during cultivation of domestic and foreign varieties of field pea. In international practice, the results of this experiment can be successfully applied in selective improvement of field pea and the development of new, high-tech varieties.

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346–359 P. Barbaś and B. Sawicka
Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation
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Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation

P. Barbaś¹* and B. Sawicka²

¹Department Agronomy of Potato, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute, Jadwisin Research Center; Szaniawskiego street 15, PL05-140 Serock, Poland
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Plant Production and Commodities Science, Akademicka street 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: p.barbas@ihar.edu.pl

Abstract:

Results of the research were based on a field experiment carried out in 2007–2009 at the Experimental Plant of the IHAR-PIB in Jadwisin, on podzolic soil with a granulometric composition of loamy sand. The experiment was established by means of a random sub-block method in a dependent split-plot pattern, in triplicate. The first order factor were the potato cultivars: ‘Irga’ and ‘Fianna’, the second order factor were the methods of weeds regulation: 1) control − without chemical protection; 2) extensive mechanical treatments (every 2 weeks) from planting to closing the rows; 3) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 before potato emergence; 4) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 40 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% before potato emergence; 5) Sencor 70 WG – 0.5 kg ha-1 after potato emergence; 6) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 30 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% after potato emergence; 7) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Fusilade Forte 150 EC – 2 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence; 8) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Apyros 75 WG 26.5 g ha-1 + Atpolan 80 SC – 1 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence. The number, floristic compositions, fresh weight and dry matter of weeds were determined. A high, yield-protective effect of herbicides was obtained as a result of limited competition of weeds. Mechanical care contributed to the increase in the total potato yield by 36.2%, and the marketable yield by 45.7%, as compared to the control object.

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1584–1596 A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk and T. Pinkina
The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence
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The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence

A. Zymaroieva¹*, O. Zhukov², T. Fedonyuk³ and T. Pinkina⁴

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Stary Blvd, 7, UA10008Z Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Botany and Horticulture Department, Hetmanska steet 20, UA72318 Melitopol, Ukraine
³Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Life Safety, Stary Blvd, 7. UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
⁴Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Ecology and Law, Department of Bioresources, Aquaculture and Natural Sciences, Stary Blvd, 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nastya.zymaroeva@gmail.com

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates the applicability of several statistical methods to the analysis and interpretation of the average rapeseed yield data. It proves our hypothesis that the general trend of rapeseed yield variations in Ukraine during 1991–2017 occurred due to agro-economic and agro-technological factors, which are the determinants of the revealed general trend. The temporal trend of rapeseed yield in most administrative districts can be described by a fourth-degree polynomial, namely, its characteristic points enabled us to describe and interpret the dynamics of rapeseed yields. The absolute term of the polynomial shows the initial conditions of the process, and its mapping allows us to identify the areas with the most favorable soil-climatic conditions for the rapeseed cultivation. Indicators of the maximum rate of growth and decrease of yields are the markers of stability of agro-ecosystems to the external influences. Therefore, the mapping of the maximum rate of decline and increase of yields reveal areas in which yields respond rapidly (increasing / falling) to the changes in agro-economic and agro-technological conditions, as well as areas where yields are more stable and change gradually. Thus, the form of the yield trend is determined by the influence of agro-technological and agro-economic factors, whose contribution to the fluctuation in rapeseed yields varies from 53% to 90%.

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