Evaluation of the mechanized harvest of grapes with regards to harvest losses and economical aspects
Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
The aim of the study was to evaluate the mechanized grape harvest conducted by the trailed harvester. As a criterions was introduced the performance, harvest losses of grapes and economic efficiency from the perspective of its introduction. The calculations consist of total annual and partial unit costs also with regards to indirect costs which are formed by the grape losses during the harvest. Evaluation was conducted on three varieties of grapes. The losses of grapes, total annual and partial unit costs were calculated for selected varieties of grapes and also for whole production area. The mean grape losses for whole production area were determined at 470 kg ha-1, while the greatest portion of these losses (9.7%) was observed in case of Neronet variety. Among other analysed aspect were the efficiency of mechanized harvest introduction by definition of labour costs and the ransom price of grapes in relation with minimum required area. A substantial part of total costs for area 100 ha was formed by direct costs up to 15.24% greater than the indirect costs. The efficiency of machinery introduction into the harvest process was observed at minimum area of 16.92 ha in case of rental mechanized harvest of grapes. In case of mechanized harvest conducted by previously bought trailed grape harvester the value of minimal efficiency was determined at 27.42 ha year-1. As a result then serves an effective utilization of mechanized grape harvest in selected company but it is not limited to it and can be applied on any other scenario.