The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions
¹National Science Center, Institute of Agriculture NAAS Ukraine,
Mashinostroiteley Str. 2b, UK 08162 habany, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
The research on the effect the main methods of soil treatment have on its hydrophysical properties was carried out as a stationary experiment at the National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture NAAS. It included a grain crop rotation with the subsequent crop sequencing: winter wheat/grain maize/barley. In 2013–2015, the spring barley variety ‘Solntsedar’ was sown. Throughout the three years of research, the consistency of the effect of the main soil treatment methods on the overall yield stayed more or less the same. Reduction in barley grain yield against the backdrop of long-term disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is explained by the thickening of the 10–30 cm layer of soil to the critical level of 1.57 g cm-3, moisture deficiency, as a result of the over-compaction of the root layer, and an increase in the amount of sterile spikelets. As the result of our research, we have come to a conclusion that for barley, soil disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is as good as ploughing if it is used as a part of differential treatment system, which includes ploughing at the depth of 28–30 cm or chisel tilling at 43–45 cm for its preceding crops. If disking was used for all crops of the grain crop rotation, a deterioration of hydrophysical properties was observed in the barley field, which can lead to a considerable reduction in the barley yield, especially in a dry cultivation year.