Theory of grain mixture particle motion during aspiration separation
¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha – 1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Ukraine
⁴Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 2 Liela Str., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁵Estonian University of Life Sciences, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
The practice of separating grain mixtures with the use of the difference in the aerodynamic properties of their components has proved that the process of separating mixtures in the aspiration separator is the most promising one with regard to the improvement of quality and intensification of production. The authors have developed a new improved design of aspiration seed separators, in which the work process of separating seed material is performed with the use of vibration processes. In this seed material separator, the constant force air flow that acts on the sail members on the central pipe of the separator, when seeds are fed for processing, generates self-excited oscillations in the pipe, which produces centrifugal forces of inertia in the seed feeding system. As a result of the mentioned effect, the propelling force in the process under study substantially increases, accelerating the seeds of different fractions, which differ in their masses, to different velocities. The motion paths of the seed particles change accordingly, heavier particles moving closer to the vertical axis of the aspiration channel, which provides for increasing the efficiency of separation of the seeds of different fractions from each other. In this paper, a new mathematical model is developed for the motion of a seed mixture material particle in the operating space of the separator’s aspiration channel. The mathematical modelling of the process of vibration and aspiration separation has indicated that the separation of the motion paths of the medium and heavy fractions takes place within the range of 20–40 mm; the flying speed of the particles is equal to 3.2–8.0 m s–1, respectively; and their acceleration is equal to 1.8–3.3 m s–2, which provides the necessary conditions for the accurate and high quality separation into the required fractions. In view of the found differences between the kinematic characteristics of the separated fractions of the grain mixture, the diameter of the pipeline for the medium fraction is to be within the range of 90–100 mm, for the heavy fraction – 50–70 mm.