Tag Archives: biological activity

161-173 M. Ibrahim, A. Aav and I. Jõudu
The potential and limitations for applications of oat proteins in the food industry
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The potential and limitations for applications of oat proteins in the food industry

M. Ibrahim¹²*, A. Aav¹² and I. Jõudu¹²

¹Estonian University of Life sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and
Animal Sciences, ERA-Chair for Food (By-) Products Valorisation Technologies (VALORTECH), Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: monica.nabil@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

Oat proteins have gained high attractive popularity in the market as future protein alternatives in various food products. The extracted oat protein fractions are characterised by a relatively high protein content and a unique amino acid profile compared to other cereal grains. From another aspect, the oat protein is separated unintentionally during the production of oat flours, oat drinks, and oat flakes which encourages the incorporation of oat proteins in the food industry to valorise the food wastes. Therefore, commercial oat proteins possess poor techno-functionality and water solubility in the usual environmental conditions for most food products; therefore, modification of oat proteins functionalities is highly recommended. Several modification methods, including chemical, physical and enzymatic, have been proposed to improve the techno-functionality of native oat proteins and their biological activities. This review highlights the nutritional value of the oat protein fractions, their techno-functional properties and their food industrial challenging limitations. Additionally, it summarises several prospective methods effective for boosting the functionality of oat protein fractions and broadening their application in a range of food industries (bakery, dairy, meat, and their alternative products) with an overview of their impact on humans, animals, and environmental health.

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171-184 G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia
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Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The activity of 11 enzymes (catalase, dehydrogenases, peroxydases, polyphenoloxidases, ascorbateoxidase, ferrireductase, β-fructofuranosidase, amylase, urease, phosphatase and protease) was assessed under conditions of steppe zone in the south of Russia when using different tillages. Winter wheat and sunflower are main crops in these soils. Moreover, chickpea, coriander, lint, barley, corn and some other crop are cultivated here in the crop rotation duration 6 years. Enzyme activity was compared in soils of 15 fields with long-term no-till (NT) versus to 15 fields with conventional tillage (CT). The researches were held along the whole Haplic Chernozem Loamic at a depth of 0–65 cm. Special attention was paid to top soil (0–10 cm), which is directly subject to the mechanical effect. The carbon cycle enzyme (β-fructofuranosidase) activity was the most sensitive indication for NT use. In top soil the enzyme activity was greater by 16–35% at NT versus to СТ. Activity of this enzyme reduces by 28–293% when soil depth increasing in both the tillages. Enzymes of different classes had different behaviours in soils depending on season, crops and tillage thanks to biochemical nature. Hydrolases and oxidoreductases were assessed by the indices characterizing soil condition and health. For this purpose geometric mean by hydrolase activity (GMEhd) and geometric mean by oxidoreductase (GMEox), as well as integral index of biological soil condition (IIBC) were used. Index GMEox in soil under sunflower reduced by 16% in summer versus to spring. Thereby, hydrolase index GMEhd reduced by 60%. At NT activity of oxidoreductase was lower by 10 and 13%, and activity of hydrolase was increased by 12 and 14% versus to СТ. Soil IIBS values at NT increased by 18–35% at average within three years (2016–2018). The use of NT technology contributes to an increase in the activity of hydrolases and soil quality due to the conservation of moisture in the soil.

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1142-1149 V. Obuka, M. Boroduskis, A. Ramata-Stunda, L. Klavins and M. Klavins
Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products
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Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products

V. Obuka¹, M. Boroduskis², A. Ramata-Stunda², L. Klavins¹ and M. Klavins¹*

¹University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia,Faculty of Biology, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Sapropel is an organic sediment from fresh water bodies that is widely distributed in the northern regions of the world. The distribution and unique properties of sapropel make it an important natural resource that can be used in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and farming directly as obtained. The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction possibilities of sapropel and potential applications of its extracts. Humic substances constitute an important ingredient of sapropel, and they can be extracted by mild alkaline extraction. Humic substances from peaty sapropel have significant differences in composition and properties, thus demonstrating the impact of precursor biological materials on the properties of humic substances formed in the humification process.

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