The potential and limitations for applications of oat proteins in the food industry
¹Estonian University of Life sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and
Animal Sciences, ERA-Chair for Food (By-) Products Valorisation Technologies (VALORTECH), Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
Oat proteins have gained high attractive popularity in the market as future protein alternatives in various food products. The extracted oat protein fractions are characterised by a relatively high protein content and a unique amino acid profile compared to other cereal grains. From another aspect, the oat protein is separated unintentionally during the production of oat flours, oat drinks, and oat flakes which encourages the incorporation of oat proteins in the food industry to valorise the food wastes. Therefore, commercial oat proteins possess poor techno-functionality and water solubility in the usual environmental conditions for most food products; therefore, modification of oat proteins functionalities is highly recommended. Several modification methods, including chemical, physical and enzymatic, have been proposed to improve the techno-functionality of native oat proteins and their biological activities. This review highlights the nutritional value of the oat protein fractions, their techno-functional properties and their food industrial challenging limitations. Additionally, it summarises several prospective methods effective for boosting the functionality of oat protein fractions and broadening their application in a range of food industries (bakery, dairy, meat, and their alternative products) with an overview of their impact on humans, animals, and environmental health.