Tag Archives: by–products

xxx M. Bappah, J. Bradna, J. Velebil and J. Malatak
The potential of energy recovery from by–products of small agricultural farms in Nigeria
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The potential of energy recovery from by–products of small agricultural farms in Nigeria

M. Bappah*, J. Bradna, J. Velebil and J. Malatak

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6–Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: bappahmusa@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural by–products are renewable energy sources from which essential amount of energy can be recovered, which can be used to replace the use of conventional fossil fuel, reduces the potential of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and at the same time reduces deforestation, especially in rural areas. Energy values of biomass from small Agricultural farms, in particular waste generated from different tropical crops, viz; Maize, Millet, Rice, Sorghum and Groundnut were determined, to ascertain their potentials as alternative fuel sources for rural use. The materials were found to be of importance judging by their combustion potentials in all the forms investigated. The Energy values of the by-products considered ranged between 11.68 MJ kg-1 to 17.48 MJ kg-1 with Groundnut pods and millet husk having the highest and least respectively. Moisture and ash had effect on the energy values of these biomass. Our results are relevant to the problems posed by the management of farm residues in developing countries.

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1346–1355 D. Konrade, I. Lidums, D. Klava, E. Ence and A. Kirse-Ozolina
Investigation of extruded cereals enriched with plant by-products and their use in fermented beverage production
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Investigation of extruded cereals enriched with plant by-products and their use in fermented beverage production

D. Konrade¹, I. Lidums¹*, D. Klava¹, E. Ence² and A. Kirse-Ozolina¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, 22 Rigas street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Milzu Ltd., "Miķeļi", Rumba parish, Kuldiga county, Latvia
*Correspondence: ivo@ilm.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to analyse the quality of extruded cereals enriched with plant by-products and to obtain fermented drinks from production rejects. Extrusion was performed with co-rotating twin-screw extruder (compression ratio 8:1) at MILZU Ltd. from rye and oat flour (80:20, control samples) with addition of apple (ABF), carrot (CBF) and pumpkin (PBF) by-product flour in various amounts (10%, 15% and 20%). Naturally fermented kvass production process was used for non-alcoholic fermented beverage production. Total dietary fibre (TDF), textural properties and sensory features of extruded products after addition of by-products (BP) were determined. Dry matter, active acidity and sensory properties were analysed in fermented beverages. The obtained results showed a 12-55% increase in TDF of extruded cereals (11.8 g 100 g-1) after addition of plant by-products. All extruded samples with BP showed lower hardness levels than control (35.55 ± 2.95 N); samples with PBF were the least hard (P < 0.05).
Samples with the lowest bulk density were obtained by the addition of 10% and 15% PBF, and 15% CBF, whereas addition of apple by-product flour in all tested concentrations gave the samples a higher bulk density compared to control. Highest taste and aftertaste scores using 5-point hedonic scale were given to samples with addition of 15% and 20% ABF, which also showed high consumer acceptance. With regards to fermented drinks, the highest dry matter content was found in PBF and ABF drink, 8.1 ± 0.1 and 7.0 ± 0.1, respectively. Sensory evaluation of fermented beverages showed that the intensity of flavour, acidity and aroma was most pronounced in sample with ABF, whereas colour was most pronounced in sample with PBF. In order to reduce production costs, it is possible to use production rejects of extruded cereals enriched with plant by-products to obtain new products.

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