Tag Archives: cone index.

xxx P. Šařec, O. Látal, P. Novák, J. Holátko, V. Novák, T. Dokulilová and M. Brtnický
Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils
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Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils

P. Šařec¹*, O. Látal², P. Novák³, J. Holátko⁴, V. Novák¹, T. Dokulilová⁴⁵ and M. Brtnický⁴⁵

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Agrovýzkum Rapotín Ltd., Rapotín, Výzkumníků 267, CZ788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
⁴Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Geology and Pedology, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
⁵Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study aims at verifying the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and of selected activators (Z’fix and NeoSol) on changes of soil properties. Their application should lead to improvement of soil physical properties and of organic matter fixation, to reduction of environmental risks, e.g. of tillage energy requirements. Experimental variants (0.7 ha each) were as follows: I (FYM with Z’fix); II (FYM with Z’fix + NeoSol); III (FYM); IV (Control NPK only). FYM was applied at rates: 50 t ha-1 (2014); 30 t ha-1 (2016). Additional NPK fertilizer (I–IV) was applied according to annual crop nutrient normative. The agent Z’fix was used as an activator of FYM biological transformation (5.5 kg t-1). The agent NeoSol was used as soil activator (200 kg ha-1; annually). In order to verify the effect, cone index, bulk density, tillage implement draft and chemical soil components (Humus, C/N ration and Ntot) were measured annually. Compared to the control, the application of FYM combined with the mentioned agents (I–III) increased Ntot more than two times. Moreover, it decreased (I–III) bulk density by 8.7%. Tillage implement draft decreased by 3% after the application of FYM with Z’fix (I, II). The study confirmed that FYM application combined with utilization of activators positively influenced soil fertility and helped to reduce environmental risks.

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1163–1176 G.F. Botta, D.L. Antille, F. Bienvenido, D. Rivero, E.A. Avila-Pedraza, E.E. Contessotto, D.G. Ghelfi, A.I. Nistal, F.M. Pelizzari, L. Rocha-Meneses and A. Ezquerra Canalejo
Effect of cattle trampling and farm machinery traffic on soil compaction of an Entic Haplustoll in a semiarid region of Argentina
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Effect of cattle trampling and farm machinery traffic on soil compaction of an Entic Haplustoll in a semiarid region of Argentina

G.F. Botta¹*, D.L. Antille²*, F. Bienvenido³, D. Rivero⁴, E.A. Avila-Pedraza⁵, E.E. Contessotto¹, D.G. Ghelfi¹, A.I. Nistal¹, F.M. Pelizzari⁴, L. Rocha-Meneses⁶ and A. Ezquerra Canalejo⁷

¹Universidad Nacional de Lujan, Departamento de Tecnología, Ruta 5 y Avenida Constitución, AR6700 Luján, Argentina
²CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Black Mountain Science and Innovation Precinct, Clunies Ross Street, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
³Universidad de Almería, CIMEDES Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, ES04120 Almería, Spain
⁴Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, Facultad de Agronomía, Ruta 35 (km 334), AR6300 Santa Rosa, Argentina
⁵Universidad del Tolima, Facultad de Ingeniería Agronómica, Calle 42, Ibagué 730006299, Tolima, Colombia
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁷Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural, Ciudad Universitaria, ES28040 Madrid, Spain
*Correspondence: gfbotta@agro.uba.ar; Dio.Antille@csiro.au

Abstract:

Soil compaction has detrimental effects on the physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils, and affects important soil processes and function, and crop productivity. This work was conducted to investigate soil compaction impacts in integrated arable cropping-livestock systems managed under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). The work examined the combined effects of cattle trampling and farm machinery traffic on: soil strength, soil deformation, and water infiltration into soil. The following treatments were applied to soil (Entic Haplustoll, 60% sand) managed under CT and NT: three traffic intensities (1, 5, 7 passes) performed with light (2WD, 53 kN) and heavy (4WD, 100.4 kN) tractors, and two stocking densities (400 and 700 kg ha-1), respectively. Controls were also used to represent the condition of the soil without any effect of livestock or field traffic. In both tillage systems, soil penetration resistance (strength) increased and water infiltration into soil decreased as traffic intensities or stocking rates applied increased. There was a significant traffic intensity × stocking rate interaction, which influenced the depth and extent of soil compaction at depth. Despite these results, stubble grazing during fallow should not be discouraged as this practice offers mixed farming systems several agronomic and financial benefits. If stubble was to be grazed, the system would need to be carefully managed: (1) avoid ‘random’ traffic using permanent or semi-permanent traffic paths to minimise the field wheeled area, (2) vacate livestock from the field, or confine it to a sacrificial area, when the soil water content exceeds a critical level above which
soil damage is likely, and (3) maintain more than 60%–70% ground cover. Tillage repair treatments can be targeted to those sacrificial or ‘hot-spots’ areas so that localised, as supposed to widespread, compaction problems are rectified before the next crop is established.

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664–673 J. Chyba,, M. Kroulík, K. Krištof and P.A. Misiewicz
The influence of agricultural traffic on soil infiltration rates
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The influence of agricultural traffic on soil infiltration rates

J. Chyba¹,*, M. Kroulík¹, K. Krištof² and P.A. Misiewicz³

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
² Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
³ Harper Adams University, Department of Crop and Environment Sciences/Engineering, TF10 8NB Newport – Shropshire, United Kingdom
*Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of agricultural machinery passes on soil infiltration rate. The experiment was conducted in a large covered area (Soil Hall) with the sandy loam soil type. Four compactions levels were applied: control, one, two and three tractor passes.
The infiltration measurements were conducted using two methods: Simplified Falling–Head (SFH) and Mini Disk (MD). The other supporting measurements were disturbed soil samples and cone index measurements.
Based on the SFH method it was observed that as the number of passes increased from 0 to 3 the infiltration rate decreased. The MD results also decreased with the increase in the number of passes. The bulk densities (at 0–0.07 m depth) increased with the number of tractor passes, under the conditions of soil gravimetric moisture content ranging between 14 and 18% vol. The cone index values at the depth of 0–0.05 m increased with the number of passes.
When comparing the results obtained using the MD and SFH, a strong relationship was not found. It could be concluded that the SFH method might be more robust and appropriate for determining the effect of the number of tractor passes on the soil water infiltration in these conditions.

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25-30 J. Chyba, M. Kroulík, J. Lev and F. Kumhála
Influence of soil cultivation and farm machinery passes on water preferential flow using brilliant blue dye tracer
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Influence of soil cultivation and farm machinery passes on water preferential flow using brilliant blue dye tracer

J. Chyba*, M. Kroulík, J. Lev and F. Kumhála

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 16521, *Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Objective of this study was the investigation of water preferential flow into the soilby brilliant blue dye tracer, under different soil tillage treatment and different soil compactioncaused by farm machinery passes. Brilliant blue dye tracer measurement was supported by coneindex measurement. Measurement was carried out on land divided into several options:a) controlled traffic farming (CTF) with loosening, b) CTF with deep loosening before plotestablishment, c) ploughing, d) ploughing with deep loosening before plot establishment. Forthe mentioned measurement options the measurements were performed inside and outside of thetrack lines of agricultural machinery. Representation of the brilliant blue dye tracer inside of thetrack lines significantly decreases at a depth of 5–10 cm for all variants. This trend is stabilisedbetween depths of 0.10 m to 0.4 m with colour coverage ranging between 10 and 20%. Aninteresting fact was that the colour coverage outside of the tracks without deep loosening beforeplot establishment was higher than measurement with deep loosening. The largest statisticallysignificant differences occurred at a depth of 0.3 m, while the most homogeneous groups (froma total of four groups) were found at depths of 0.05 to 0.1 m and 0.25 to 0.3 m. Cone indexmeasurement confirmed almost 100% increase in penetration resistance inside of traffic lines(2. MPa) in comparison with measurements outside of the traffic lines (1. MPa) in the range ofdepth from 0–0.16 m.

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