Tag Archives: no-till

xxx G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia
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Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The activity of 11 enzymes (catalase, dehydrogenases, peroxydases, polyphenoloxidases, ascorbateoxidase, ferrireductase, β-fructofuranosidase, amylase, urease, phosphatase and protease) was assessed under conditions of steppe zone in the south of Russia when using different tillages. Winter wheat and sunflower are main crops in these soils. Moreover, chickpea, coriander, lint, barley, corn and some other crop are cultivated here in the crop rotation duration 6 years. Enzyme activity was compared in soils of 15 fields with long-term no-till (NT) versus to 15 fields with conventional tillage (CT). The researches were held along the whole Haplic Chernozem Loamic at a depth of 0–65 cm. Special attention was paid to top soil (0–10 cm), which is directly subject to the mechanical effect. The carbon cycle enzyme (β-fructofuranosidase) activity was the most sensitive indication for NT use. In top soil the enzyme activity was greater by 16–35% at NT versus to СТ. Activity of this enzyme reduces by 28–293% when soil depth increasing in both the tillages. Enzymes of different classes had different behaviours in soils depending on season, crops and tillage thanks to biochemical nature. Hydrolases and oxidoreductases were assessed by the indices characterizing soil condition and health. For this purpose geometric mean by hydrolase activity (GMEhd) and geometric mean by oxidoreductase (GMEox), as well as integral index of biological soil condition (IIBC) were used. Index GMEox in soil under sunflower reduced by 16% in summer versus to spring. Thereby, hydrolase index GMEhd reduced by 60%. At NT activity of oxidoreductase was lower by 10 and 13%, and activity of hydrolase was increased by 12 and 14% versus to СТ. Soil IIBS values at NT increased by 18–35% at average within three years (2016–2018). The use of NT technology contributes to an increase in the activity of hydrolases and soil quality due to the conservation of moisture in the soil.

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2350–2358 G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage
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Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Tillage technologies that promote resource-saving and increase in the yield of agricultural crops are being increasingly involved into the agriculture of arid territories of Russian Federation. Studies of the impact of new tillage on soil quality and yield in Russian Federation are necessary owing to the high soils and climate diversity. Yield enhancement of major crops – winter wheat and sunflower – have been observed in Russian Federation in recent years. During 2014–2019 in the south of the European part of Russian Federation (Rostov region), the effect of No-Till (NT) on soil quality and yield of field crops was studied. The studies were carried out over an area of 5,500 hectares in comparison with adjacent fields, where conventional tillage (CT) of soils with mould board plowing was used. The yield of sunflower and winter wheat depended significantly on the amount of precipitation during the growing season. In 2014–2017 the use of No-Till increased the yield of winter wheat by 26–114%, of sunflower – by 27–92% as compared with farms, where the conventional tillage of soil treatment was used. No-Till helped to save motor fuel, increase yields of agricultural crops and lower the cost of winter wheat and sunflower.

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280–289 K. Tamm, E. Nugis, L. Edesi, E. Lauringson, L. Talgre, P. Viil, T. Plakk, T. Võsav, R. Vettik and P. Penu
Impact of cultivation method on the soil properties in cereal production
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Impact of cultivation method on the soil properties in cereal production

K. Tamm¹*, E. Nugis¹, L. Edesi¹, E. Lauringson³, L. Talgre³, P. Viil¹, T. Plakk¹, T. Võsav, R. Vettik¹ and P. Penu²

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva Vald, Estonia
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu 4, Estonia
*Correspondence: kalvi.tamm@etki.ee

Abstract:

The aim of present paper is to give an overview about results collected in 2012–2014 related to impact of cultivation method on the cereal field soil properties. Experiments were conducted on Estonian farmers’ production fields to compare no-till and plough-based tillage practices. Studied properties were among others soil bulk density, structure, water content, microbial activity and weeds seeds content.
The bulk density, gravimetric moisture content and structure of soil from 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm layers were evaluated. For microbial activity an enzyme  dehydrogenase, which occurs in all viable microbial cells, was determined in soil layers 0–10 and 10–20 cm. Soil samples were taken from 0–25 cm layer to determine weed seeds content. Seeds were extracted from the soil using a flotation-method. The seeds were counted and species identified under the microscope.
The cultivation method has significant impact on some soil properties and insignificant to other. Cultivation method had no significant impact on ratio of agronomically preferred soil particles (2–4.75 mm). No-tilled fields soil bulk density had no differences between layers except 0–10 layer in Pärnumaa (p < 0.05). Soil bulk density differences (p < 0.05) between layers occurred in Soth-Viljandimaa and Pärnumaa tilled soils, in which plough pan in layer 20–30 cm was noticeable.
In average the abundance of weeds seeds was higher on no-tilled fields, compared to tillage accordingly 60,975 and 29,250 weed seeds m-2 (p < 0.003). Results showed higher soil dehydrogenase activity in the no-tilled soils layer 0–10 cm than in 10–20 cm layer (p < 0.05). In the tillage the dehydrogenase activity had no significant difference between soil layers.

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