Tag Archives: operating speed

xxx V. Bulgakov, V. Nadykto, V. Kaminskiy, Z. Ruzhylo, V. Volskyi and J. Olt
Experimental research into the effect of harrowing unit’s operating speed on uniformity of cultivation depth during tillage in fallow field
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Experimental research into the effect of harrowing unit’s operating speed on uniformity of cultivation depth during tillage in fallow field

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Nadykto², V. Kaminskiy³, Z. Ruzhylo¹, V. Volskyi⁴ and J. Olt⁵*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Avenue, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv street, Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA08162 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, 11 Vokzalna street, Glevakha stl, Vasylkivsky Dist., UA08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi street, EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Retention of soil moisture is an urgent topic of the day in the cultivation of agricultural crops. Using fallow fields is one of the ways to solve the named problem, but the tilling of such fields requires observing some special conditions, in particular, the capillary effects in their upper soil layers must be cut down. For that purpose, the authors have proposed a special harrow equipped with the tools capable of fulfilling the above-mentioned task. The authors have carried out extensive field experiment research into the tillage of fallow soils with the use of the said implement. In order to apply the implement, a new harrow unit has been developed. The results obtained during the experiment research have been processed with the use of statistical methods and it has been established that the depth of harrowing in the tilled field decreases, when the operating speed of the combined unit under consideration increases to 3.3 m s–1. At the same time, the variances of oscillations of the parameter under research in accordance with the Cochran’s C test remain uniform. Also, the frequency of the harrowing depth oscillations changes insignificantly. That is supported by the correlation lengths of the normalized correlation functions of the process under consideration, which, at the above-mentioned operating speed, stay within the sufficiently narrow range of values: 0.16–0.20 m. According to the results of the experimental investigations, the maximum value of the normalized cross-correlation function for the relation between the oscillations of the field harrowing depth and the oscillations of the field’s longitudinal profile does not exceed 0.12. This testifies to the absence of any substantial interrelation between the said two stochastic processes, which is quite reasonable in view of the small values of the variance and period of the oscillations of the field’s longitudinal profile. The probability of the new combined tractor and harrow unit maintaining the tolerance of the fallow field cultivation depth oscillations within the range of ± 1 cm is equal to 82%. Within each 1.85 m of the distance travelled by the combined soil cultivation unit under consideration, only one instance of the field cultivation depth deviating from the ± 1 cm tolerance can be expected.

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1674–1685 J. Maga and K. Krištof
Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield
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Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield

J. Maga and K. Krištof*

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the study and evaluation of quality of the seeding of seeds and its effect on the biomass yield. The aim was to evaluate the space arrangement of the seeds by using of polygon method on one field with the repetition for different forward speeds of the drill machine. For the evaluation there were used digital photographs, which were taken during repeated measurements of the each value of the forward speed after sprouting of crop. These images have been used in order to determine the shape and size of the surface area belonging to the plant. Own software TfPolyM was used for the image analysis. The shape of the polygons belonging to the individual plants was expressed by values of the shape factor Tf. This factor characterises the suitability the shape of polygon surface related to the individual plant. By comparing of the values of the shape factors for different forward speeds of the drill machine we can determine the optimal value of the forward speed from the point of seed placement uniformity in horizontal level. During harvest of the crop there was analysed the variability of the biomass yield in relation to values of the forward speed used during seeding. The most suitable values of shape factor Tf (0.8519) was recorded for speed of drill machine set on 12 km h-1. For other tested speeds 8, 10, 15 km h-1 were recorded lower values of shape factor 0.7994, 0.8173 and 0.8449, respectively. In determination of biomass production for drill machine speed 12 km h-1 the greatest yield from 1 m2 was observed. Subsequently, for speeds 8 and 10 km h-1 was lower about 4.26% and 1.83%, respectively. For tested speeds of drill machinery 15 km h-1 and above was observed only a small descent of yields about 0.6%. Fluctuation in yields affected by working speed then demonstrates fluctuation in sowing rate. It was also observed that the working speed of sowing machinery also affect the amount of yield directly. However, in case of lowest yield of straw recorded it was observed even 20% decrease in yield of grains.

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