Tag Archives: rural buildings

xxx P.H.N. Martins, D. Cecchin, A.R.G. de Azevedo, D.F. do Carmo, R.A. Donagemma, R.M.M. Waite, N.F. Rodrigues, F.A. Sousa, P.I.S. Amaral, C.M. Hüther, C.R. Pereira and V.M.F da Cruz
Technical and economic pre-feasibility study for the construction of septic tank-filter-sinkhole with alternative material
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Technical and economic pre-feasibility study for the construction of septic tank-filter-sinkhole with alternative material

P.H.N. Martins¹, D. Cecchin¹*, A.R.G. de Azevedo², D.F. do Carmo¹, R.A. Donagemma¹, R.M.M. Waite¹, N.F. Rodrigues¹, F.A. Sousa³, P.I.S. Amaral⁴, C.M. Hüther¹, C.R. Pereira¹ and V.M.F da Cruz⁵

1Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, Boa Viagem, Niterói-RJ, Brazil
²North Fluminense State University (UENF), Civil Engineering Department, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000 - Parque Califórnia, Campos dos Goytacazes BR28013-602 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
³SEMAG/Aracruz, Av. Morobá, n.20, BR 29192-733 Bairro Morobá-ES, Brazil
⁴José do Rosário Vellano University (UNIFENAS), Department of Veterinary Medicine, Rodovia MG-179 km 0, s/n -Bairro Trevo, BR 37130-000 Alfenas-MG, Brazil
⁵Évora University (UE), Pólo da Mitra, PT 7002-554, Évora, Portugal
*Correspondence: daianececchin@id.uff.br

Abstract:

The study of the different materials used in the construction of septic tanks aims to facilitate and spread the use of this sewage treatment system in places that are not assisted by municipal sewage systems and in the rural area, which despite having a smaller number of inhabitants compared to the urban area This study aims to carry out a technical and economic evaluation of the concrete and tires using in the construction of septic tanks-filter-sinkhole. The wastewater treatment systems were built according to the recommendations in NBR 7229/93 and 13969/97. To evaluate the efficiency of each system built, the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), the potential of hydrogen (pH), alkalinity, acidity, and temperature. In the economic evaluation, the materials and labor required to install the systems were considered using the Brazilian cost database (SINAPI), and an economic and financial feasibility study was carried out. According to the technical and economic analysis of construction, both systems showed the same technical performance, however, the concrete design proved to be more advantageous than the tire design, considering the difficulty in acquiring the tires and the high cost if it is necessary to buy them, in addition to the greater difficulty in handling and installing the tire system compared to the concrete one.

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378–384 D. Cecchin, P.F.P. Ferraz, A.T. Campos, F.A. Sousa, P.I.S. Amaral, J.O. Castro, L. Conti and V.M.F da Cruz
Thermal comfort of pigs housed in different installations
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Thermal comfort of pigs housed in different installations

D. Cecchin¹, P.F.P. Ferraz²*, A.T. Campos², F.A. Sousa³, P.I.S. Amaral⁴, J.O. Castro², L. Conti⁵ and V.M.F da Cruz⁶

¹Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, Boa Viagem, Niterói-RJ, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Campus Universitário, BR 3037, Lavras-MG, Brazil
³SEMAG/Aracruz, Av. Morobá, n.20, BR 29192-733 Bairro Morobá-ES, Brazil
⁴José do Rosário Vellano University (UNIFENAS), Department of Veterinary Medicine. Rodovia Mg-179 km 0, s/n - Bairro Trevo, BR 37130-000 Alfenas-MG, Brazil
⁵University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, n.13, IT 50145 Firenze, Italy
⁶Évora University (UE), Pólo da Mitra, PT 7002-554, Évora, Portugal
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

In an intensive production system, the environment directly influences the comfort and welfare of pigs. Animals under heat stress may exhibit behavioural changes and changes in physiological parameters, such as increased body temperature, respiratory and cardiac movements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal comfort of growing and finishing pigs housed in facilities with different construction typologies. The evaluated pens were: pen with water depth (WDP) and pen with partially slatted floor (SLF). Data on the ambient thermal environment in the pens and in the outside were collected automatically using Hobo dataloggers, model U12-013. This equipment recorded the air temperature, relative humidity of the air and black globe temperature in intervals of five minutes. Subsequently the variables were used in the calculation of the temperature index of the globe and humidity. The physiological responses of the animals were collected: Surface Temperature (ST) and Respiratory Rate (RF). When analyzing the parameters: ST and RF, it was observed that the WDP pen presented a significant difference in all the observed hours, with an increase observed throughout the day, and the SLF pen presented a difference at 9:00 a.m. presenting a lower value than the other schedules evaluated. The BGHI inside the pens showed average values in the hottest period of the day slightly above what is recommended for adult pigs. Both facilities during the hottest time of the day demonstrated a similar trend in relation to the evaluated variables, so it was concluded that both pens provided the same conditions of thermal comfort for the animals.

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1235–1245 M. Topol, P. Kic and P. Neuberger
Reduction of moisture and thermal conductivity of wet walls by special plaster
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Reduction of moisture and thermal conductivity of wet walls by special plaster

M. Topol¹*, P. Kic¹ and P. Neuberger²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: TopolMilan@seznam.cz

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the problems of moisture reduction in old buildings. Wet walls are very common problem of old buildings, but it can appears also in new buildings as well. The moisture in the wall influence the insulation quality; bigger heat losses continuously cause problems of worse heat balance, higher consumption of energy for heating and it can result in not sufficient indoor conditions in such a room or building. Old rural residential buildings and also agricultural buildings for housing of animals, storage of different materials, workshops etc. could be repaired and reconstructed by the used of some special methods. The application of special plaster can reduce the walls moisture as well as improve the thermal properties of the buildings by reduction of thermal conductivity. This paper includes the results of laboratory experiments focused on research of plaster properties (temperature, moisture and thermal conductivity) and tests provided in the real building. Different measuring principles, enabling mutual comparison of results were used for this research. The measurement results showed a significant effect of high wall moisture on the heat losses. Differences between the walls improved by new tested plaster and old untreated walls are discussed in this paper. Obtained results from this measurements and findings may be useful for further research in this issue as well as for the practical solutions for similar problems in many old buildings.

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