Change of physical properties of arable chernozem in the initial period of the after agricultural abandonment regime
Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology named
after D.I. Ivanovsky, Stachki Ave. 194/1, RU344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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A field experiment was conducted in the botanical garden of the South Federal University (Rostov-on-Don, Russia), which was aimed at converting the old arable land plot to the arable regime. Physical properties of chernozems were studied during the first years of the postagrogenic period in different plots, such as: a virgin steppe plot, an arable plot and an abandoned plot. During the course of the experiment it was revealed that physical properties of postagrogenic soils change due to vegetation development after tillage is discontinued. Within three years of research a biological diversity of the floristic composition in the abandoned plot increased from 9 species (during the first year) up to 38 species of plants (3 years later). Vegetation development served as a cause of changes in physical properties of chernozems. Temperature of the abandoned soils decreased along with soil moisture growth, if compared to the relevant indices of the arable plot of land. Owing to the root development and cessation of the agricultural impact, density of the upper horizon in the abandoned plot dropped by 10% on average. A positive correlation was revealed between the chernozem density and its penetration resistance (r = 0.70) and temperature (r = 0.73), whereas an inverse correlation was detected between the chernozem density and its moisture content (r = -1.0).