Tag Archives: yields

xxx S. Kalenska, N. Novytska, T. Stolyarchuk, V. Kalenskyi, L. Garbar, M. Sadko, O. Shutiy and R. Sonko
Nanopreparations in technologies of plants growing
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Nanopreparations in technologies of plants growing

S. Kalenska¹*, N. Novytska¹, T. Stolyarchuk¹, V. Kalenskyi², L. Garbar¹, M. Sadko³, O. Shutiy¹ and R. Sonko¹

¹National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Agrochemistry and Quality of Plant Production, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Information Systems and Technologies, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: svitlana.kalenska@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use of engineered nanomaterials in sustainable agriculture has demonstrated a completely new way of food production that can potentially overcome uncertainty in the agricultural sector with limited available resources. Nanoparticle engineering is one of the latest technological innovations which demonstrate unique target characteristics.
During 2013–2020, research on the directions and effectiveness of nanopreparations in plant growing: nutrient source, activation of photosynthesis, immunocorrectors, stimulators of seed germination, plant growth and development, multivalent drugs for increasing plant resistance to stress was conducted. Monoparticles, nanoparticle combinations, and chelate complex of nano fertilizers on crops of soybean were tested. Field research was conducted in a stationary field experiment of the Plant Science Department of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. The soil of the stationary experiment is typical chernozem. In research was used soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) of early-ripening variety Horol. Over the years of research, weather conditions varied, but were within the typical for zone of research. Average monthly temperatures were close or higher the perennial average indicators.
The purpose of the research is to find out the influence of pre-sowing seed treatment and fertilizing of crops by nano-preparations Avatar (microfertilizer of carboxylates of natural acids), Iodis-concentrate (immunomodulator – stimulator of growth processes), and Super Micro Plus (nanochelate fertilizer) on leaf formation – rate, the activity of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean variety Horol.
Nanopreparations were used for pre-sowing seed treatment and fertilizing – spraying during the growing season in several doses. The use of nanopreparations, as seed treatment in combination with inoculation and as fertilizer, intensified formation of the leaf surface area, symbiotic apparatus activity of soybean plants. The introduction of nanofertilizers complex in the top-dressing helped to increase yields and change the functional quality of crop products which indicates their unconditional effectiveness. Soybean yield significantly depended on weather conditions, varying from 1.23 to 3.48 t ha-1 depending on the weather conditions and the combination of seed inoculation and nanofertilizer. Soybean yield under favourable weather conditions in 2016, depending on the use of preparation combination ranged from 2.27 to 3.48 t ha-1.
As a result of the research, it was found that the use of nanopreparations Avatar, Jodis-concentrate and Super Micro Plus for seed treatment and fertilizing intensified leaf surface formation and symbiotic apparatus activity of soybean plants. The obtained results confirm that application of nanofertilizers complex Jodis-concentrate, Avatar and nano chelate fertilizer Super Micro Plus in the soybean fertilizing helped to increase the yield, which testifies to their unconditional effectiveness. The highest efficiency of nanofertilizers was shown by inoculation and seed treatment by Avatar and fertilizing by Avatar + nano chelate fertilizer Super Micro Plus, providing the formation of 52.4 thousand m2 ha-1 of leaf surface area of soybean varieties Horol, 69.7 pcs per plant of root nodules, 785 mg per plant of their weight and yield at the level of 2.79 t ha-1 an average of five years.

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426-442 J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof, A. Schmidt, M. Križan and O. Urbanovičová
Evaluation of the mechanized harvest of grapes with regards to harvest losses and economical aspects
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Evaluation of the mechanized harvest of grapes with regards to harvest losses and economical aspects

J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof*, A. Schmidt, M. Križan and O. Urbanovičová

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the mechanized grape harvest conducted by the trailed harvester. As a criterions was introduced the performance, harvest losses of grapes and economic efficiency from the perspective of its introduction. The calculations consist of total annual and partial unit costs also with regards to indirect costs which are formed by the grape losses during the harvest. Evaluation was conducted on three varieties of grapes. The losses of grapes, total annual and partial unit costs were calculated for selected varieties of grapes and also for whole production area. The mean grape losses for whole production area were determined at 470 kg ha-1, while the greatest portion of these losses (9.7%) was observed in case of Neronet variety. Among other analysed aspect were the efficiency of mechanized harvest introduction by definition of labour costs and the ransom price of grapes in relation with minimum required area. A substantial part of total costs for area 100 ha was formed by direct costs up to 15.24% greater than the indirect costs. The efficiency of machinery introduction into the harvest process was observed at minimum area of 16.92 ha in case of rental mechanized harvest of grapes. In case of mechanized harvest conducted by previously bought trailed grape harvester the value of minimal efficiency was determined at 27.42 ha year-1. As a result then serves an effective utilization of mechanized grape harvest in selected company but it is not limited to it and can be applied on any other scenario.

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