Tag Archives: poplar

xxx A. Meija, I. Irbe, A. Morozovs and U. Spulle
Properties of Populus genus veneers thermally modified by two modification methods: wood treatment technology and vacuum-thermal treatment
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Properties of Populus genus veneers thermally modified by two modification methods: wood treatment technology and vacuum-thermal treatment

A. Meija¹*, I. Irbe², A. Morozovs¹ and U. Spulle¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Forest Faculty, Department of Wood Processing, Liela street 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Laboratory of Wood Biodegradation and Protection, Dzerbenes street 27, LV1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: meija.anete@gmail.com

Abstract:

Due to environmental concerns the use of wood materials is becoming more extensive and is causing wood supply shortage, therefore the use of Populus genus wood species with a short rotation period is vital. Populus genus species wood has several shortcomings – it is not durable, has low density and is hygroscopic. Thermal modification is a technology that can be used to improve the situation. In this study aspen (Populus tremula L.) was thermally treated using the Wood Treatment Technology (WTT) device for 50 min at 160 °C (50–160 WTT) and poplar (Populus x canadensis Moench) was vacuum-treated (VT) 120 min at 204 °C (120–204 VT), 120 min/ 214 °C (120–214 VT), 180 min 217 °C (180–217 VT) and 30 min 218 °C (30–218 VT). Mass loss (ML), colour change, density, tensile strength along the fibres, moisture exclusion efficiency and weight loss (WL) after brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana were determined and also light microscopy images were taken. Aspen veneers showed a ML of 5.3% between 120–214 VT (6.2%) and 30–218 VT (4.6%) treatment that coincided with the same mass loss in aspen boards cited in the literature. The highest ML was 8.7% calculated from 180–217 VT, while the lowest ML was 2.9% computed from 120–204 VT. The total colour change ΔE was 44, where lightness parameter L provided the greatest impact that was reduced twice after modification. Tensile strength reduced by 47% in the WTT process and had ~29% reduction in the VT process. The WL after fungus C. puteana was 33% at 50–160 WTT. After VT treatment, WL was 0–2.4%. 120–214 VT and 180–217 VT poplar veneers were the most suitable for plywood production.

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821-837 P.A. Marziliano, D. Russo, V. Altieri, G. Macrì and F. Lombardi
Optimizing the sample size to estimate growth in I-214 poplar plantations at definitive tree density for bioenergetic production
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Optimizing the sample size to estimate growth in I-214 poplar plantations at definitive tree density for bioenergetic production

P.A. Marziliano*, D. Russo, V. Altieri, G. Macrì and F. Lombardi

Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Loc. Feo di Vito, IT89165 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: pasquale.marziliano@unirc.it

Abstract:

In Europe, over the last decades, the arboriculture for woody biomass production has significantly expanded, often using poplar plantations. In order to maximize production, the flexibility of the cultivation algorithms becomes necessary. For this reason, it is necessary to apply monitoring tools for the evaluation and estimate of the wood productions, without significantly affect the production costs. In particular, for the estimate of the productions, the choice of the sample size is of particular importance. The aim of this study was to verify a simplified sampling approaches in poplar plantations characterized by constant tree density. The research was conducted in a poplar plantation on the Tuscan hills (Italy). The surveys were carried out each year for 13 years, from 4 to 16 years old. Through different statistical techniques, the change in the social position of each tree over time was evaluated. The results showed that the social position of each tree has been characterized by the first years after the plantation. Consequently, the estimate of the productions can be carried out by analysing the diameter increment of 10% of the trees, included in the diameter classes around the medium-sized tree at the time of the survey. This study provided a valid method for forest managers characterized by a simplified approach useful to estimate the growth and yield of hybrid poplars. This method will permit reliable biomass estimates, but also a reduction of the costs in the sampling activities in the field.

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361-371 R. Pecenka and T. Hoffmann
Harvest technology for short rotation coppices and costs of harvest, transport and storage
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Harvest technology for short rotation coppices and costs of harvest, transport and storage

R. Pecenka* and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee
100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany;
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

The lack of knowledge regarding cost-efficient design of whole production chains as
well as the availability of powerful harvest machinery are some of the main obstacles for
competitive production of bioenergy from short rotation coppices (SRC) at practice. In general,
two different harvest lines are available: the cut-and-chip and the cut-and-store lines. Whereas
the cut-and chip line provides wood chips which have to be stored until next heating season, the
product for intermediate storage of the cut-and-store line are whole trees. Both process lines have
major differences not only in harvesting, but also in transport, storage and process losses leading
to different costs of the end product wood chips. On basis of data from several SRC harvest
campaigns, production costs for wood chips have been calculated to identify best practice
solutions taking the following factors into account: chip size determined by the harvest system,
storage including related costs and losses, field size and shape as well as transport to storage.
According to the results, mower-chippers and forage harvesters can provide wood chips at lowest
production costs (43…45€ tdm-1) if field shape is favourable for harvest operations. Under less
favourable field conditions costs are approx. 7 to 14% higher. Highest production costs have to
be accepted if whole trees are harvested with a shoot harvester (64 to 72 € tdm-1). The reduction
in storage losses and storage costs are not sufficient to compensate higher machine costs for
harvest and additional comminution with mobile chippers from forestry

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151-160 R. Pecenka, D. Ehlert and H. Lenz
Efficient harvest lines for Short Rotation Coppices (SRC) in Agriculture and Agroforestry
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Efficient harvest lines for Short Rotation Coppices (SRC) in Agriculture and Agroforestry

R. Pecenka*, D. Ehlert and H. Lenz

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany; *Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

Wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) such as poplar, willow and black locust is a promising option for the sustainable production of biofuels and biomaterials. Provided that production technologies, logistic chains and end user structures are well designed in farmers’ regional structures, these cropping systems may provide a secure source of income. One of the key problems at present is the lack of knowledge and powerful harvest machinery at practice. Although a lot of machines were developed and tested during the last 30 years, only a few have exceeded the prototype stage. Analysing the process chain for SRC, chip lines seem to be most cost-efficient for harvest, and the modification of forage harvesters for SRC is a promising option. But the high machine weight of forage harvesters is a serious disadvantage due to the limited trafficability of harvest plots in winter. Furthermore, for economic operation of these expensive harvest systems cultivation areas of more than 300 ha are required. Therefore, ATB has developed a simple and low weight tractor-mounted mower-chipper for medium sized standard tractors (75–150 kW) together with the company JENZ (Germany). The chipper is designed for flexible harvest of wood from SRC and Agroforestry (max. stem diameter 15 cm). The total weight of the harvester (tractor and chipper) is less than 50% of the forage harvester combination resulting in much more flexible field operation and lower harvest costs. The machine has been successfully tested in the last two harvest seasons and is on the market available now.

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